Each type of breaker has a set of compensation tables associated with it. A. Holm et al., Development of Controlled Switching of Reactors, Capacitors Transformers and Lines, International Conference on Large High Voltage Electric Systems, 1990 Session, Aug. 26 Sep. 1, 1990. 9. B. J. Ware, Synchronous Switching of Power Systems, International Conference on Large High Voltage Electric Systems, 1990 Session, Aug. 26 Sep. 1, 1990. In one embodiment, the optical pick-up may be adjusted to generate a transition within the first two millimeters of travel and every millimeter thereafter. 15. In presently preferred embodiments, the estimated operating time is given by. excitation system digital lakh approx rs unit 4,442,329, Apr. Where the closings are not synchronized with respect to the system voltage, the probability for obtaining the maximum energization transients is high. While the invention has been described and illustrated with reference to specific embodiments, those skilled in the art will recognize that modification and variations may be made without departing from the principles of the invention as described above and set forth in the following claims. These three simple measurements provide a novel method for monitoring mechanism travel using an optical linear displacement transducer. Circuit breakers can differ in the overall configuration of these components. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:ASEA BROWN BOVERI INC.;REEL/FRAME:012470/0437, Owner name:

Appropriate networking may also be employed to allow remote access to detailed alarm information. The expression "compensation" refers to this method of adjusting the base time for temperature, control voltage, and spring charge. 11. In one embodiment of the CMU, up to six heaters can be monitored for continuity, open elements, and proper operation. A system as recited in claim 26, wherein the actual switching time is determined by detecting the time at which current begins to flow in the switched circuit. A second set of contacts and a red indicator are used to signal immediate danger. For example, a green light may indicate that all monitored systems are normal; a yellow light may indicate one or more conditions of concern; and a red light may indicate a condition requiring immediate attention. Different algorithms apply to each case for each of the wear points. A kind of sulfur hexafluoride breaker phase column simultaneity control method, A kind of high-voltage switch gear divide-shut brake action mechanical property monitoring method and equipment, Switching action data processing method, device and system for field suppression switch, Zero crossing contactor and method of operating, High-voltage device and method for measuring temperature on a high-voltage device, Single pole trip and ganged pole closing for multiphase high-voltage power circuit breakers, Three-phase combined type circuit breaker, Dead tank housing for high voltage circuit breaker employing puffer interrupters, Molded case circuit breaker with removable arc chutes and disengageable transmission system between the operating mechanism and the poles, Solid-state trip unit of an electrical circuit breaker with contact wear indicator, System for automatically shutting down auxiliary power devices in a vehicle, Method and device for synchronous switching of a circuit breaker, Determine and predict adaptively the method for end-of-life of vacuum interrupter, Method of determining end-of-life of a fault interrupting device, Method and apparatus for communicating with an intelligent electronic device associated to a switching device in power systems, Method and apparatus for optimizing synchronous switching operations in power systems, Two pole circuit breaker voltage monitoring integration, Improper voltage detection for electronic circuit breaker, Reliability in semiconductor device control, Circuit protection device and method for monitoring protection device in power distribution system, Communication enabled circuit breakers and circuit breaker panels, HVDC breaker and control apparatus for controlling an HVDC breaker, Controlled switching of HVAC circuit breakers: application examples and benefits, Remote control and operation of LV distribution networks, Controller and system including a controller for detecting a failure thereof, Method and device for detecting failure of a vacuum interrupter of an on load tap changer, Dynamic mechanically switched damping system and method for damping power oscillations using the same, High-voltage line breaker condition monitoring system, Fault identification and initial time calibration method of dynamic grounding processing device, Online condition monitoring of SF 6 circuit breaker, Optimizing the switching time for 400 kV SF6 circuit breakers, Apparatus and method for servicing a distribution bus, Edge Devices, Sensors, Cloud for High Voltage Switchgears, Current status and future trend of controlled switching system, Design, development and testing of low scatter mechanical drives for point-on-wave switching in 400 kV AIS circuit breakers, Long-term Reliability of Controlled Switching Systems: Observations from Two Decades of Development and Experience A. MERCIER* S. DE CARUFEL P. TAILLEFER Hydro-Qubec VIZIMAX Inc. Canada, Interrupted arc responsive protective equipment for series capacitors, Advantages of comprehensive monitoring for critical circuit breakers, Controlled switching of circuit breaker and its site measurement in power distribution system. Other features and advantages of the present invention are disclosed below. For example, the optical pick-up may count the number of bars passing the sensor. Input contacts would then be "wired" within software to create the necessary output conditions. In addition, on-line analysis performed by the CMU provides information facilitating the performance of maintenance as needed and the identification of impending failures. Spring charge duration: The duration of operation (seconds) is measured each time the pump operates. The capacitive switching transient recovery voltage typically has a 1-cosine waveshape with a peak occurring one-half cycle after current interruption. Other abnormal conditions can result in absolute travel which is too short. 4. 21. One goal of the present invention is to provide an intelligent and reliable circuit breaker having a modular architecture and means for monitoring and controlling the circuit breaker to improve its reliability and reduce maintenance costs.

One solution is to use three separate operating mechanisms and corresponding linkages to synchronously control the operation of each pole individually. As shown in FIG. 3, Jul. If the velocity is less than the danger alarm setting, the danger alarm is logged and activated and the caution alarm is not. Presently preferred embodiments of a CMU in accordance with the present invention include means for determining the wear condition and operating capability of one or more components or parts of components of the switching device. (c) a condition monitoring unit (CMU) module operatively coupled to said switching device for monitoring a plurality of operating parameters associated with said switching device; each of said BCU, SCU and CMU modules being individually removable from said modular system as desired and each of said BCU, SCU and CMU modules being replaceable in said modular system as needed, wherein the system will remain operable even if a module fails, said CMU comprising wear determination means for determining the wear condition of a component of the switching device, said wear determination means being operative to determine said wear condition on the basis of at least measurements of: (1) reaction time, defined as an elapsed time from initiation of a close signal for closing said switching device to a first signal generated by a sensing device indicating that said switching device has begun to close; (2) velocity of the switching device during free travel without the effect of contact make/break or damping; and (3) absolute travel of the switching device. In one embodiment, normal bounds for contact and nozzle wear per operation are defined as more than 1% loss of life for a single operation. 5 is a block diagram of the breaker control unit 50. A modular system as recited in claim 1, wherein said SCU comprises means for effecting the synchronous opening and closing of a switched circuit, in which said switching device is operatively coupled to, by monitoring at least one of the current and voltage waveforms on the switched circuit, said SCU being operative to open and close said switching device at prescribed points on said current and voltage waveforms, said prescribed points correspond to a predetermined current in the case of said current waveform being monitored and to a predetermined voltage in the case of said voltage waveform being monitored. For example, expected values are in the range of five to twenty milliseconds. This may be performed by continuously monitoring temperature and pressure and recognizing when the liquification point of SF. 1.

When there is too little damping, more bars would pass back and forth past the sensor as the mechanical system bounces. 22. As shown in FIG. Moreover, the SCU can be applied to capacitors, reactors, transformers, and transmission lines to reduce system switching transients and extend interrupter life. E. Andersen et al., Synchronous Energizing of Shunt Reactors and Shunt Capacitors, International Conference on Large High Voltage Electric Systems, 1988 Session, Aug. 28 Sep. 3, 1988. A push button may also be used to display the present status (e.g., "All Monitored Subsystems Normal" or "**ALARM**"). Once the arc is extinguished as shown in FIG. This wear, expressed in "percent of useful life," is accumulated for each cell and stored in memory. An operation is deemed abnormal when reaction time, velocity, or contact/nozzle wear are not within normal bounds. Furthermore, two or more BCUs can be employed as redundant units, providing a cost-effective method for maximizing availability of the circuit breaker control system. This information used to compute the average may include several days or just a partial day. Arcing current waveforms are recorded in order to calculate contact and nozzle wear. Alternatively, a separate tank for each interrupter may be provided in a multiple tank configuration. A low-level current is continuously passed through the coil to assure continuity.

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