This study investigated whether the inclusion of KBS in the warm-up enhances sprint performance. An information statement explaining all the procedures, benefits and risks of the study were given to the participants, as well as being verbally explained before commencement. I dumped sprints and took up kettlebell swings for my post-weight training, fat loss interval work. Sprints commencing with a three-point stance has been used in previous studies investigating the PAP effect on sprint performance [7,24] and has been shown to be highly reliable (ICC = 0.92) [35]. Participants were also instructed to abstain from caffeine and alcohol consumption for at least 12 h before all sessions. Also, an individuals strength level has been shown to effect PAP from single and multiple set protocols [17], with stronger individuals benefiting from multiple set protocols while weaker individuals benefited from single sets. It is possible that the KBS may potentiate other activities such as the vertical jump, which is another activity commonly investigated in PAP research [5,15] and should be investigated in future research. and transmitted securely. ; Investigation, K.K. When you sprint, you lift a leg, plant it on the ground and then pull yourself forward and then you repeat with the other leg. official website and that any information you provide is encrypted There were moderate negative correlations found for change in sprint time and KBS load (absolute and relative) at 4 min recovery (r = 0.31 to 0.42). An explanation for the conflicting results is likely due to the coexistence of potentiation and fatigue within the contracting muscle. Once there was a decline in mean power output detected, no further increases in load were performed and the previous load (i.e., producing the highest mean power output) was used for the KBS in the experimental sessions. Whereas, strength measured isometrically and at different velocities from the knee extensors does not appear to relate to the ability to potentiate sprint performance from KBS based on the present study findings of trivial to small correlations. The application of postactivation potentiation methods to improve sprint speed. An explanation for the shorter rest period required to induce PAP among stronger individuals is likely due to their greater fatigue resistance to heavier loads, greater distribution of type 2 muscle fibers and prior resistance training experience [13,18,19]. Prior to testing, participants became familiar with both testing procedures by performing submaximal contractions for each muscle group as a warm-up. Previous research has shown that kettlebell swings (KBS), utilizing the hip-hinge technique, exhibit similar lower-limb muscle activation patterns to sprint running. With my regular training sessions, after I lifted weights, I used to head out to the track to do my intervals. Twenty healthy adults (12 males; 8 females), participated in the study. Coexistence of potentiation and fatigue in skeletal muscle. ; Writingreview and editing, K.K., C.F., M.H. Participants commenced the sprint following a three-second countdown and from a three-point stance with the participants foot and hand placed 50 cm behind the first timing gate. Data are presented as mean standard deviation. Manocchia P., Spierer D.K., Lufkin A.K., Minichiello J., Castro J. Transference of kettlebell training to strength, power, and endurance. A whole-body dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scanner (Lunar Prodigy, GE Medical Systems, Wisconsin, USA) was used to measure body composition. Lake J.P., Lauder M.A. A significant time effect was found for sprint time at 20-m (p = 0.042), with the post hoc analysis revealing a faster sprint time at 12 min compared to 4 min (p = 0.022). Percent (%) changes for each condition were calculated using the following formula: % change = ((CON value minus KBS value) divided by CON value) multiplied by 100. The .gov means its official. Morris S.B., DeShon R.P. When you sprint on a treadmill, the machine/belt does the pulling for you thus making a treadmill sprint a full quad-dominant exercise. However, what most dont realize is that our most important muscles the ones that give us balance, posture, power & strength are located behind us.

Chiu L.Z.F., Barnes J.L. 6 Reasons Why I Stopped Running Sprints and Started Swinging a Kettlebell, Youve probably never heard this before, but. Evetovich T.K., Conley D.S., McCawley P.F. ; Supervision, D.A.H. Effects of KBS on sprint time were analyzed using a two factor repeated measures ANOVA, one factor being time (with three levels: 4, 8, and 12 min) and the other being condition with two levels corresponding to the two conditions (KBS and CON). Kettlebell training for musculoskeletal and cardiovascular health: A randomized controlled trial. Wilson J.M., Duncan N.M., Marin P.J., Brown L.E., Loenneke J.P., Wilson S.M., Jo E., Lowery R.P., Ugrinowitsch C. Meta-analysis of postactivation potentiation and power: Effects of conditioning activity, volume, gender, rest periods, and training status. However, similar to the findings of the present study, no reductions in sprint time were found at 4, 8 and 12 min following a 3RM barbell squat in a group of sub elite rugby players. These precautions were taken to minimize the effect on the outcome measures. Lake J.P., Lauder M.A. The best performance from the two preliminary sessions was used for the leg extensor strength and power, and KBS performance. National Library of Medicine There have been two main theories proposed to explain an enhancement in athletic pursuits from PAP. Sprint time at 5-m, 10-m and 20-m following the three respective recovery times (4, 8, and 12 min) for the two conditions (KBS versus CON) is displayed in Table 2. A positive % change indicates a slower time for KBS compared to CON. This was done via participants performing two swings where the mean power from the second swing was recorded, with loads progressing from light to heavy (increments of approximately 510 kg). Think about the motion when you swing a kettlebell your back is straight, your hips are pushed back, your abs are tight and then in one forceful motion, you thrust your hips forward, your body goes upright and you explode up. An official website of the United States government. This study investigated whether including kettlebell swings (KBS) in a warm-up enhances 20-m sprint performance. Findings from two meta-analyses [16,17] showed that individual strength profiles influence the rest period needed to induce PAP. Baker D. Acute effect of alternating heavy and light resistances on power output during upper-body complex power training. Holmstrup M.E., Jensen B.T., Evans W.S., Marshall E.C. Rubber hexagonal dumbbells were attached to the kettle clamp and as the load increased so did the width of the dumbbell, which resulted in stronger participants adopting a wider stance to remain balanced during the KBS.

Finally, the inclusion of both males and females as participants may have contributed to the mixed findings due to sex differences in relative strength. On a separate visit during the second week body composition (i.e., lean body and fat mass) was assessed. Get ready for the TT Kettlebell Workout Revolution. There was 60 s rest between sets and 120 s rest between each leg. This was due to the KBS performed rapidly, which led to increased maximal power output and increased rate of force development. This would have allowed participants with higher optimal loads to perform the swings without modification of their technique. Whereas the ballistic exercises require minimal equipment (e.g., weight vest) or no equipment, the performing of resistance exercises requires specialized equipment (e.g., barbells, weight plates, squat rack), which is generally inaccessible immediately prior to competitions [2,23]. However, since sprint performance measures were quite similar at all recovery times for both the KBS and CON conditions, it seems unlikely that fatigue as a result of the KBS condition (i.e., 2 sets of 5 repetitions) negatively influenced the results. Postactivation potentiation response in athletic and recreationally trained individuals. [39] found KBS to transfer effectively to Olympic style lifts as well as other explosive movements. Our posterior chain (our upper & lower back, glutes, hamstrings & calves), although we cant see it, is our most critical group of muscles. Inter-rater reliability based on scans at baseline was excellent for lean body and fat mass (ICC: 0.980.99 and CV: 1.12.4% respectively). Postactivation potentation effects from accommodating resistance combined with heavy back squats on short sprint performance. A strength of the current study was the good to excellent reliability between the two experiment weeks for the KBS and CON conditions. Effect Sizes (ES) between the two conditions were calculated using Morris and Deshons equation 8 [37]. Furthermore, including KBS in a warm-up may be detrimental to sprint time for people stronger with this exercise if performed 4 min or less before a sprint. All I have to do is lift my leg. The majority of research on PAP have reported improvements in sprint performance following recovery times ranging from 412 min [7,9,10], with two studies reporting the greatest potentiating effect to occur between 710 min [8,25]. Correlation matrix between change in sprint time (control minus kettlebell swing conditions) and muscle performance characteristics.

The acute effects of heavy-load squats and loaded countermovement jumps on sprint performance. Relative = Expressed relative to body mass. However, the dynamics of the KBS are thought to be more movement specific to sprint running than barbell squats, where there is greater horizontal propulsive forces and higher activation of the muscles (hamstrings and gluteals) incorporated in sprint running. This would benefit track and field athletes more so than athletes involved in other sports (e.g., soccer, basketball, rugby) since the PAP effects will only last a short period of time. A repeated measures, crossover, experimental design with random treatment order, was used to investigate the acute effects of KBS on sprint performance (Figure 1). It could also be hypothesized that individuals with greater power output capabilities may have greater PAP potential. All 20 participants completed the preliminary sessions and the week 3 experimental sessions. Acute potentiating effect of depth jumps on sprint performance. The small to moderate positive correlations found between change in sprint time and KBS load suggests that people with the ability to lift heavier loads for the KBS may require at least 8 min recovery, if any potentiation effect is to result. Eight Weeks of Kettlebell Swing Training Does not Improve Sprint Performance in Recreationally Active Females. ; Project administration, D.A.H. Therefore, the week 4 data for these sprints and not the best of two performances were used for these participants. Therefore, it is not recommended that athletes perform KBS as a preconditioning exercise for the potentiation of the 20-m sprint. Maulit M.R., Archer D.C., Leyva W.D., Munger C.N., Wong M.A., Brown L.E., Coburn J.W., Caplin A.J. There were no condition effects, time effects or condition by time interactions for sprint times at 5-m and 10-m. At 5-m, small ES in favor of CON were found at all recovery times (ES = 0.10 to 0.19), whereas at 10-m trivial ES between conditions were found at all recovery times (ES = 0.02 to 0.08). A secondary aim was to examine whether a more pronounced PAP effect is observed in participants with greater leg strength and power. However, it remains uncertain which type of exercise is more effective for maximizing the potentiating effect on sprinting [2,16]. Since the participants in the present study were recreationally trained, it is possible that the prescription of multiple sets of KBS as a preconditioning stimulus for the 20-m sprint was not suitable. If you dont sprint on a track on a regular basis, then the unfamiliar range of motion of sprinting all out could leave you hobbled. This is highlighted in one study [13] where athletes increased their countermovement jump height after a 5RM barbell squat, as compared to recreationally trained individuals whom experienced a decline in countermovement jump height.

Crewther B.T., Kilduff L.P., Cook C.J., Middleton M.K., Bunce P.J., Yang G.-Z. The sporting background of the participants included soccer, rugby, basketball, track and field, and martial arts. Factors Modulating Post-Activation Potentiation of Jump, Sprint, Throw, and Upper-Body Ballistic Performances: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis. Sprint time was measured using wireless timing gates (Timing Solutions, Victoria, Australia) and were set up at 0-m, 5-m, 10-m and 20-m positions. For the KBS condition, participants performed 2 sets of 5 KBS using a modified apparatus of the kettlebell, the Kettle Clamp (Kettle Clamp, Ohio, USA). The acute effects of heavy deadlifts on vertical jump performance in men. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether including KBS (utilizing the hip hinge technique) in the warm-up enhances sprint performance in moderately trained males and females. Turner A.P., Bellhouse S., Kilduff L.P., Russell M. Postactivation potentiation of sprint acceleration performance using plyometric exercise. With swings, I hop on them right after my last set of weights and go to town. Mcbride J.M., Nimphius S., Erickson T.M. 2001-2022 Early to Rise Publishing, LLC. Therefore, while it appears that including KBS in a warm-up does not influence subsequent sprint performance, it may be dependent on individual strength capabilities with the KBS. and G.C.W. It is possible that these results were influenced by individual strength capabilities. Each experimental session commenced with a 10-min standardized warm-up which incorporated light jogging, dynamic stretching, tuck jumps and sprinting. Combining effect size estimates in meta-analysis with repeated measures and independent-groups designs. KBS = kettlebell swing; Optimal Load for KBS = load that achieves the highest mean power for the KBS; LE = leg extension. Multiple sets ( 2) at a moderate intensity have been shown to be more optimal for potentiation than a single set protocol [17], although a multiple set protocol should also theoretically produce more fatigue than a single set [16]. Discipline of Exercise and Sport Science, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2141, Australia; Received 2019 Jan 14; Accepted 2019 Feb 4. I can do KB Swings in an 8 x 8 elevator. Sprint time at 4-, 8- and 12-min following kettlebell swing and control conditions. Whilst the PAP effect is generally observed with relative loads 60% 1RM [17], the loads used with KBS are typically prescribed based on a specific absolute load and have not exceeded 32 kg [26,29,30,31,32]. The majority of these studies have shown improved sprint performance following the ballistic exercises [20,21] and resistance exercises [6,7,8,9,10,25]. and D.A.H. When using a resistance exercise to potentiate an athletic task, the effectiveness of the intensity and volume prescribed also appears to be influenced by muscular strength. Accessibility Duncan M.J., Gibbard R., Raymond L.M., Mundy P. The Effect of Kettlebell Swing Load and Cadence on Physiological, Perceptual and Mechanical Variables. It shaves my workout time by at least 15 minutes. Subsequent sprints were performed at 8- and 12-min post KBS, again with participants resting in a standing position between bouts. It appears the KBS is not effective for potentiating 20-m sprint performance; however, any potential benefit from the inclusion of KBS as a preconditioning exercise for sprinting may be influenced by individual strength capabilities with KBS. To our knowledge, this is the first study to incorporate KBS as a preconditioning exercise prior to sprint running. This study design was used to minimize the effects of bias (e.g., allocation and performance bias) and confounders (i.e., known and unknown). Bevan H.R., Cunningham D.J., Tooley E.P., Owen N.J., Cook C.J., Kilduff L.P. The potentiating effect has been shown to be larger for stronger individuals when higher intensities are used (>85% of 1RM), and larger for weaker individuals when moderate intensities are used (6084% of 1RM). Intra Class Correlations between the two experimental weeks showed that reliability was good to excellent (ICC = 0.770.97). Trivial ES between conditions at 20-m were found at all recovery times (ES = 0.02 to 0.04). Hopkins W.G., Marshall S.W., Batterham A.M., Hanin J. Therefore, it appears that individuals who were stronger with the KBS experienced a greater improvement in sprint performance following the KBS condition (i.e., greater PAP effect). There are several limitations that need to be acknowledged when interpreting the findings of the present study. Hamada T., Sale D.G., Macdougall J.D. For these two participants the week 3 results were used and not the best of the two experimental weeks. Diagrammatic representation of the study design.

KB swings work our posterior chain like no exercise can. Therefore, sprints were performed 4, 8 and 12 min post CON condition. Beardsley C., Contreras B. Why? Terms of Service | Privacy Policy | Contact Us | Sitemap Increases in lower-body strength transfer positively to sprint performance: A systematic review with meta-analysis. The technique used for the KBS needed to be slightly modified when a heavier load was used. The Fitness-Fatigue Model Revisited: Implications for Planning Short- and Long-Term Training. Learn more The authors declare no conflict of interest. The reliability of ten-meter sprint time using different starting techniques. Stronger compared to weaker individuals required shorter rest intervals (37 versus 612 min) with the former also having a longer potentiation duration (up to 12 min). You only get 1/2 of the motion, the treadmill does the other 1/2. There was approximately 30 s rest between trials for lighter loads and 60 s rest for heavier loads, based on participants perceived exertion.

I tried sprinting on a treadmill and came to the realization that Im only getting 50% of a workout. KB Swings are dare I say it FUNCTIONAL. This may be supported by the present study findings of small to moderate correlations found for KBS (absolute and relative loads) and sprint performances at 8 and 12 min. Descriptive statistics of males and females including body composition (lean body and fat mass) and muscle performance (leg extensor strength and power, KBS optimal load) were reported to describe fitness-related characteristics of the participants in this study. Lean body and fat mass was determined using the systems software package enCORE 2011 (version 13.60.033, GE Medical Systems, Wisconsin, USA). Sometimes, even though my workouts were efficient, it would take me 1.5 hours to get a full workout in (warm-up, weights, warm-up, intervals, cool-down, stretch). Each participant was risk assessed via the use of the American College of Sports Medicine pre-exercise screening questionnaire and were deemed to be healthy. Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Healy R., Comyns T.M. government site. However, we did consider sex differences when analysing relationships with muscle performance characteristics through running partial correlation analyses that were adjusted for sex. The inclusion criteria for this study included being aged 1830 years, regularly performing at least 150 min of moderate exercise per week or 75 min of vigorous exercise per week, and having a minimum six months resistance training experience. After completion of the KBS, participants rested in a standing position for four minutes prior to performing the first 20-m sprint. The Mean power from KBS was measured via a linear force transducer (Gym Aware Power Tool, Canberra, Australia) attached to the kettlebell clamp. Wyland T.P., Van Dorin J.D., Reyes G.F.C. Positive correlation = faster sprint time from KBS correlated with muscle performance measure. Before A lack of improvement in acute exercise performance following a preconditioning exercise is thought to be linked to the coexistence of potentiation and fatigue within the contracting muscle [5,40]. Preconditioning exercises, consisting of high resistance or ballistic activities, can be utilized by athletes in the minutes prior to power-based exercises in order to improve performance [1,2,3,4]. Delecluse C. Influence of strength training on sprint running performance. Duthie G.M., Pyne D.B., Ross A.A., Livingstone S.G., Hooper S.L. But again, you need access to a hill and if you dont have a lot of time (see above), then getting to one may be out of the question. 5. Studies have shown acute improvements in countermovement vertical jump height [3,5,6] and 20-m sprint [7,8,9,10] following resistance exercises such as barbell squats and power cleans. Previous studies that have investigated the effects of preconditioning exercises on sprint performance have used ballistic exercises such as depth jumps and alternate leg bounding [20,21] or resistance exercises such as barbell squats and power cleans [6,7,8,9,10,22,23,24,25]. about navigating our updated article layout. Five sprint attempts were given to each participant during each preliminary session and feedback on their three-point sprint start was provided by a co-investigator (K.K). Seitz L.B., Reyes A., Tran T.T., Saez de Villarreal E., Haff G.G. Results from the current study showed that the implementation of KBS as a preconditioning exercise did not improve sprint time at any distance and recovery time. KB Swings, as I said above in point #4, works all those muscles neglected with treadmill sprinting and if done right, will relieve your over-developed and tight quads & hip-flexors. Kettlebells are portable and can be easily transported; therefore, kettlebell exercises may be a suitable alternative to barbell exercises to induce a potentiating response to improve sprint performance. Conceptualization, D.A.H. Contrary to the findings of PAP effects on subsequent exercise performance, some studies have reported that acute exercise performance did not change [13,14] or was impaired [15] following a preconditioning exercise. Furthermore, 45 min is required between explosive performance to replenish immediate fuel stores [12,40]. Postactivation potentiation in endurance-trained male athletes. The best results for each leg were added together to calculate isometric torque and isokinetic power of the leg extensors. will also be available for a limited time. Both these theories explain an increase in contraction velocity of the potentiating muscle, thus leading to an increase in its power output during an explosive activity such as jumping, throwing, and sprinting. Participants then performed sprints at 13- and 17-min post warm-up. sharing sensitive information, make sure youre on a federal To date, no study has investigated whether the kettlebell swing (KBS), in which repetitions are performed rapidly, as a preconditioning exercise can enhance sprint performance. The back squat and the power clean: Elicitation of different degrees of potentiation. This suggests that for stronger individuals an increase in PAP from single to multiple sets outweighs the increase in fatigue. Furthermore, KBS with moderate loads have been shown to produce similar power outputs to jump squats using heavier loads [26] and to initiate higher proportion of horizontal to vertical propulsive forces compared to barbell squats and jump squats [27,28]. In contrast, the studies that have found a potentiating effect on sprint performance have been in professional rugby players, and track and field athletes, who are known to possess greater relative strength compared to sub-elite sportspeople [8,23,24]. 8600 Rockville Pike This error message is only visible to WordPress admins, Chris Lopez Kettlebell Revolution fileserve, interval training with kettlebells beginner, interval workouts incorporating kettle bells, turbulence training kettlebells workout schedule. Participants were instructed and practiced the KBS with a hip dominant movement where emphasis was placed on maximal hip recruitment, and minimal knee flexion [26,33]. Based on this evidence, rest intervals of 4, 8 and 12 min seemed to be adequate to enable the potentiating effect from the KBS to dissipate at a slower rate than the effect of fatigue [40]. * Significant at p < 0.05.; C = condition effect; C T = condition x time interaction; CON = control; ES = effect size; KBS = kettlebell swing; m = metres; min = minutes; T = time effect. Hirayama K. Acute effects of an ascending intensity squat protocol on vertical jump performance. No wonder people who use treadmills have underdeveloped butts & hamstrings. Lorenz D. Postactivation potentiation: An introduction. Matthews M.J., Matthews H.P., Snook B. The acute potentiating effects of back squats on athlete performance. People say they workout for health, which Im sure is true, but at the end of the day most of us workout to look better. For significant ANOVA results, a post hoc Tukeys test was used to determine which group means differed. Participants completed each set of KBS within one minute, with three minutes of passive rest incorporated between sets; therefore, the total duration of the KBS exercise was five minutes. The test-retest reliability between sessions was therefore assessed on sample size n 16.

Progressive statistics for studies in sports medicine and exercise science. Moderately trained males (n = 12) and females (n = 8) performed KBS and a control (CON) condition (passive rest) in random order before performing three 20-m sprint trials separated by 4 min. This site uses cookies to provide social media features and analyze our traffic. Strength of correlations were qualitatively assessed using the following criteria: trivial (r < 0.1), small (r > 0.1 to 0.3), moderate (r > 0.3 to 0.5), strong (r > 0.5 to 0.7), very strong (r > 0.7 to 0.9), nearly perfect (r > 0.9), and perfect (r = 1.0) [38]. The best sprint performances to 5-m, 10-m and 20-m from the KBS and CON sessions were used for data analysis. This research received no external funding. Rassier D.E., Macintosh B.R. No condition (KBS versus CON) effects, time effects or condition by time interactions were found for sprint times at 5-m and 10-m. A significant time effect was found for sprint time at 20-m with faster sprint time at 12 min compared to 4 min (p = 0.022). As such, there is increased confidence in the results showing that KBS do not acutely enhance 20-m sprint performance in recreationally trained adults. This ensured the participants commenced from a standardized position and did not trigger the gate prematurely. This technique was incorporated due to the generation of high horizontal propulsive forces, and increased activation of the posterior leg musculature corresponding with sprint running [26,27,34]. The study protocol was approved by the University of Sydney Human Research Ethics Committee. Sprints were performed on a concrete surface under cover and shielded from winds (i.e., area between buildings). Previous research investigating the acute effects of high resistance exercises on sprint performance have used barbell squats [6,9,10,25], with one study incorporating power cleans [7]. Careers. Effects of preload 4 repetition maximum on 100-m sprint times in collegiate women. The Role of Kettlebells in Strength and Conditioning: A Review of the Literature. Additionally, there is no function on the kettle clamp to adjust the orientation of the dumbbell where the rubber hexes are facing anteriorly and posteriorly. Bethesda, MD 20894, Web Policies Anthropometric and Muscle Performance Characteristics of Participants. As such, KBS could potentially have a higher transferability to sprint running than squats. Dynamic stretching mainly focused on the lower body muscles utilized in sprinting and included standing forward leg swings, walking lunges, and internal and external hip rotation. Maloney S.J., Turner A.N., Fletcher I.M. Byrne P.J., Kenny J., ORourke B. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. Verbal and written informed consent was provided by the participants prior to commencing the study.

| 1624 Market St #202-92422 Denver, CO 80202 Doing this triple extension the explosive extension of your hips, knees & ankles is a movement thats used in every sport, in any physical activity that involves picking something up off the ground or lifting something from a low to high position (like throwing your kid up in the air). The 4-min rest period was selected due to previous literature describing moderately trained individuals requiring 37 min of recovery to offset the level of fatigue after a heavy resistance warm-up, in order to produce a potentiating response [16,36]. Seitz L.B., Trajano G.S., Haff G.G. Seitz L.B., Haff G.G. Also, we hypothesized that the PAP effect will be larger among participants with greater leg strength and power.
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