Of the major themes we examined, recreation was among the most common themes in YouTube video posts.

Another recent article found troubling evidence for the use of Russian bots to distribute misinformation about vaccines on Twitter [65]. We demonstrate that firearm manufacturers use Twitter and YouTube to promote the sale of guns to millions of viewers.

A study of school-associated homicides in the United States found that although rates of single-victim homicides remained unchanged over the past 20 years, multiple-victim incidence rates increased significantly from 2009 to 2018 [26]. A recent survey of gun owners identified law enforcement and active military as the most effective groups to educate about safe gun storage [36]. Celebrity endorsements: a literature review and research agenda. A quantitative aggregation of the themes found in social media advertisements made by gun manufacturers and influencers helps characterize the prevailing strategies used by companies to increase purchases of consumer guns. Of the 2111 firearm manufacturers identified by the ATF, over half (n=1120) manufactured fewer than 10 firearms. Future research could benefit from better understanding contemporary firearm consumers and the influence of advertising on their decision making. 1 Producers of firearms and ammunition in the United States and the quantities of guns made annually are listed in the Annual Firearms Manufacturing and Export Report, published by the Bureau of Alcohol, Firearms, Tobacco, and Explosives (ATF; see Table 1 for a summary) [73]. Social media produced by the military and law enforcement currently works to the benefit of firearm producers: future social media produced by these government agencies should consider opportunities to promote peace and stability, in our homes, communities, and around the world. Future work could explore social media use by the US armed services and law enforcement to understand how these agencies respond to or incorporate advertising from firearm manufacturers into their information sharing with the communities that follow them. YouTube influencers, however, displayed rifles more often than other gun types (134/239, 58.3% of posts displayed rifles). The copied text includes links to the Glock website. The employment and working conditions, particularly with respect to occupational health and mental health, are shocking, unethical, and hidden behind restrictive nondisclosure agreements or by recruiting work through contract labor, piecemeal labor, and offshore arrangements [72]. The specific process for identifying social media advertisements is outlined below.

In these moments, influencers may convey certain health warnings on a variety of factors.

Of the posts that do include women, handguns and gun protection themes were more prevalent (Figure 2). https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, https://www.economist.com/the-americas/2019/05/23/guns-from-the-united-states-are-flooding-latin-america, https://justiceinmexico.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/2013_WayoftheGun.pdf, https://www.stopusarmstomexico.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/THE-LEGAL-AND-ILLEGAL-GUN- TRADE-TO-MEXICO_August2018.pdf, https://stopusarmstomexico.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/U.S.-Guns-to-Mexico-Final.pdf, http://ip.bmj.com/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=9887425, http://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=27697951, http://www.smallarmssurvey.org/fileadmin/docs/T-Briefing-Papers/SAS-BP-Civilian-Firearms-Numbers.pdf, http://www.norc.org/PDFs/GSS%20Reports/GSS_Trends%20in%20 Gun%20Ownership_US_1972-2014.pdf, https://www.icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/ICPSR/studies/36319, https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/06/22/key-takeaways-on-americans-views-of-guns-and-gun-ownership/, https://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2017/06/22/americas-complex-relationship-with-guns/, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/monkey-cage/wp/2018/05/07/americans-vastly-overestimate-the- number-of-gun-owners-thats-a-problem/, https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2018/12/27/facts-about-guns-in-united-states/, http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/30575483, https://cdn.ymaws.com/www.safestates.org/resource/resmgr/nvdrs/Suicide_Report_2018/FINAL_ REPORT_-_NVDRS_Special.pdf, https://www.pbs.org/newshour/nation/police-departments-confront-epidemic-in-officer-suicides, http://www.bmj.com/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=30842105, http://www.apnorc.org/projects/Pages/Gun-Laws-and-Public-Safety-.aspx, http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/25850688, https://www.usatoday.com/story/money/business/2013/03/22/comcast-gun-ads/2009717/, https://www.garrisoneverest.com/firearms-and-hunting/5-firearm-marketing-alternatives-you-havent-thought-of-yet/, https://www.pewinternet.org/fact-sheet/social-media/, https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2019/04/10/share-of-u-s-adults-using- social-media-including-facebook-is-mostly-unchanged-since-2018/, https://www.youtube.com/intl/en-GB/yt/about/press/, https://www.pewinternet.org/2018/11/07/many-turn-to-youtube-for-childrens-content-news- how-to-lessons/, http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/22080585, http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/28669801, http://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=17565142, http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=29295893, http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/22711416, http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/28810937, https://www.nytimes.com/2018/03/22/business/youtube-gun-ban.html, http://social.techcrunch.com/2017/10/09/youtube-bans-bump-stock-instructional-videos-following-las-vegas-shooting/, https://support.google.com/youtube/answer/7667605?hl=en, https://business.twitter.com/en/help/ads-policies/prohibited-content-policies/weapons-and-weapon-accessories.html, https://www.economist.com/business/2019/05/25/how-to-make-social-media-safe-for-children, https://www.bloomberg.com/graphics/2018-us-gun-imports/, http://dangerclosegroup.com/influential-gun-industry-influencers-2019/, https://blog.chron.com/narcoconfidential/2015/10/texas-request-to-buy-guns-tops-1-million-for-year/, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=livBrRdpgdk, http://thenationshealth.aphapublications.org/content/49/2/2.2, https://www.washingtonpost.com/technology/2019/05/30/tech-giant-brings-software-gun-fight/, https://www.thetrace.org/2019/06/meet-the-ad-execs-who-want-to-put-graphic-warnings-on-ammunition/, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dgF8Nlj4maM&feature=youtu.be, http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/20634267, https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A52016PC0593, https://e-cigarettes.surgeongeneral.gov/documents/surgeon-generals-advisory-on-e-cigarette-use-among-youth-2018.pdf, https://www.pbs.org/newshour/show/the-shocking-violence-that-characterized-the-reign-of-el-chapo, https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/sdg16, https://www.esd.whs.mil/Portals/54/Documents/DD/issuances/dodi/541020p.pdf, http://www.policemag.com/509573/glock-signs-chuck-norris-as-spokesperson, https://www.militarytimes.com/off-duty/gearscout/2019/04/09/chuck-norris-loves-glock-so-you-better-love-glock/, https://web.archive.org/web/20200319201030/https://www.pica.army.mil/Picatinny/about/?AspxAutoDetectCookieSupport=1, Number of firearms manufactured (includes rifles, pistols, shotguns, revolvers, and miscellaneous), n (%), Maverick Arms, INC (subsidiary of Mossberg & Sons), Diamondback Firearms LLC (owned by Taurus), Strassells Machine Inc (also known as Hi-Point Firearms), Remington Arms, Remington Arms Company LLC, Mossberg, Maverick Arms, Inc (subsidiary of Mossberg & Sons), Taurus USA, Taurus International Manufacturing Inc, Henry Repeating Arms, Henry RAC Holding Corp, Palmetto State Armory, Palmetto State Armory, LLC, Zenith Firearms, MKE (also known as Zenith Firearms), Hi-Point, Strassells Machine Inc (also known as Hi-Point Firearms), Anderson Manufacturing, WM C Anderson Inc, Diamondback Firearms, Diamondback Firearms LLC (owned by Taurus), Retired middle school teacher Greg Kinman collaborates with his son to review historic and modern firearms, Popular YouTube personality and veterinarian Matt Carriker produces vlog-style gun reviews, Now inactive; was one of the first and most popular gun channels on YouTube, Iraq War veteran Eric Blandford makes gun and podcast videos with strong second amendment themes. Ian McCollum showcases historical guns and modern guns with unique histories, Richard Ryan and a team of others make gun videos featuring a related brand, Black Rifle Coffee, and military themes, Will Bulletproof Glass Stop A .50 Cal?

Moms Demand Action for Gun Sense in America, The Coalition to Stop Gun Violence (CSGV). From the recent tweets obtained, we explored the 20 most recent tweets, ending May 15, 2019, and the 20 most retweeted tweets, for each company: generating a sample size of 928 tweets. Hemenway also recommended that public health scholarship examine the approaches that firearm manufacturers use to promote gun sales, drawing comparisons to very successful health interventions in tobacco advertising and sales [3]. This section first explores opportunities for changes in the US legislation that can help reduce the widespread proliferation of small arms in the United States by limiting advertising and suggests avenues for future research. Section 1062 of Public Law 111-383, which forbids the Department of Defense to collect or record any information about private firearms of members of the military or its civilian employees, [14] should be repealed. The informational material on the US Army Picatinny Arsenal website, which engages in small arms acquisition for the armed forces, offers an interesting contrast to the way firearm advertisers characterize guns. LJ contributed to the text, data collection, classification, and visualization. 100 million views of electronic cigarette YouTube videos and counting: quantification, content evaluation, and engagement levels of videos. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention WONDER.

Palmetto State Armorys video collection includes a video of Sarah, a gunsmith, demonstrating how to assemble an AK-47 from parts that can be purchased from the manufacturer [78]. YouTube expanded its previous ban on videos demonstrating the use or construction of bump stock modifications following the Las Vegas shooting in 2016 to include more rigorous restrictions [67].

Swanson JW, Sampson NA, Petukhova MV, Zaslavsky AM, Appelbaum PS, Swartz MS, Kessler RC.

Bethesda, MD 20894, Web Policies Many scholars have observed the significance of firearms on childrens health: gun-related injuries are the second leading cause of death for children and adolescents in the United States [24]. Among Twitter posts, firearm giveaways were not uncommon, and some manufacturers advertise and giveaway builds for custom rifles.

All characteristics listed in Table 5 were coded as binary variables.

For example, the Moms Demand Action campaign explicitly discusses the strategy to use social media to unite gun control advocates [84]. Saylor EA, Vittes KA, Sorenson SB. In total, 6.6% (16/239) of YouTube influencer posts contain nongun paid promotions; 18.9% (91/480) of recent Twitter posts made by gun manufacturers link to websites, but only 9.0% (44/484) of the most popular Twitter posts link to websites. To study the ways that firearm manufacturers use social media for advertising, we performed a systematic search and content analysis. Within the list of major producers, a few did not have Twitter handles (Sturm, Ruger & Company; Colts Manufacturing Company; and HS Produkt), and some did not have YouTube channels (Heritage Manufacturing; HS Produkt; and Radical Firearms).

Capurro D, Cole K, Echavarra MI, Joe J, Neogi T, Turner AM. Patton DU, Patel S, Hong JS, Ranney ML, Crandall M, Dungy L. Tweets, gangs, and guns: a snapshot of gang communications in Detroit.

The renewed interest in and attention to firearm advertising permits an important deepening and sophistication to public debate in the United States on the scope of possible responses to gun violence. In the video, a young woman at home, watching television in her pajama shorts and top, is being stalked by a bearded man in a van. The top 4 companies manufacture the majority of all firearms (4,521,925/8,366,942, 54.04%), and the top manufacturers producing over 50,000 firearms in 2017, included 23 companies, accounting for 87.78% (7,345,049/8,366,942) of US production. Among US adults viewing YouTube, 61% say they frequently or sometimes have observed videos with people engaging in dangerous or troubling behavior [45].

The extent to which tobacco marketing and tobacco use in films contribute to children's use of tobacco: a meta-analysis. Depue JB, Southwell BG, Betzner AE, Walsh BM. When the product being advertised is lethal (as in the case of tobacco or guns) or can easily be used in ways that harm health (e.g. Forsyth SR, Malone RE. For instance, future work in this area could explore the local use of social media advertising by small business producers of firearms and the interaction of these uses with larger companies. An official website of the United States government. 3100 Sanders Road, Suite 400 official website and that any information you provide is encrypted aAdditional characteristics identified for influencers.

What are the perceptions about the legitimacy of this media? YouTube influencers occasionally give weapons poor reviews. A market analysis that includes careful consideration of the firearm economy over the past decade may help reveal the causes in the overall purchasing trends for guns. Zamudio NP, Vargas LG, Lindsay-Poland J, Tllez MM. Military small arms fire in association with acute decrements in lung function. The list of influencers, along with channel names, views, subscribers, and short summaries can be found in Table 4. Schwemmer C, Ziewiecki S. Social media sellout: the increasing role of product promotion on YouTube. The major causes of death in children and adolescents in the United States. The SCCY Network YouTube channel was excluded because it only included two videos. government site.

In total, 44% of US residents know someone who has been shot, and a higher proportion, 51% of US gun owners surveyed, know someone who was shot [22]. Characteristics assessed in Twitter and YouTube activity of major firearm manufacturers and firearm influencers. This means that over half of the YouTube posts made by manufacturers intend to promote handguns but over half of the YouTube influencers promote rifles. New public health scholarship in this area is needed [12,13]. Twitter archive summary for top domestic firearm manufacturers by followers. The advertisements include the following: Mission 1: Overwatch, Mission 2: Target Identified, Mission 3: Vehicle Assault, and Mission 4: Tango Down.

The highest ownership rates were found in 1976, where over 80% of households located in East South Central states (Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee) reported owning a gun; conversely, in 2018, sample data for Middle Atlantic states (New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania) estimate ownership rates at 19% [18]. We began by identifying top gun manufacturers. Youth access, creation, and content of smokeless tobacco ('dip') videos in social media. Using the Haddon matrix: introducing the third dimension.

We cannot make inferences about the less-viewed influencers that we did not assess.

One study found that public perception of gun ownership significantly overestimates actual ownership, which may contribute to more moderate views of gun control [21].

For this paper, we chose to explore the top manufacturers that produced over 50,000 firearms.

Decisions by major print, television, and Web-based media sources to restrict paid firearm advertising is remarkable: gun advertisements used to circulate among major US newspapers and magazines commonly found in homes [11]. As the international regulation of firearms in most industrialized countries tends to be more restrictive than the United States, some foreign manufacturers, such as those in Japan, export over 90% of their annual production to the United States [2,3]. Quality kiss-cut, vinyl decal, Demolitionranch Socialblade stickers. She stands pointing her handgun at the door, and when it bursts open, the attacker faints. Encoded exposure to tobacco use in social media predicts subsequent smoking behavior. We have begun with a descriptive review of US civilian firearm ownership, the health consequences of firearm advertising, and the role of social media in advertising. By searching YouTube, we found 24 channels hosted by the major firearm manufacturers, which account for 85% of the domestic firearm production (Table 3). Handgun advertising has been shown to exploit this rationale, despite evidence that households with firearms are at elevated risks of gun violence from homicide, suicide, and accidental injury [61]. and transmitted securely. Runyan CW, Brooks-Russell A, Brandspigel S, Betz M, Tung G, Novins D, Agans R. Law enforcement and gun retailers as partners for safely storing guns to prevent suicide: A study in 8 Mountain West States.

The American Public Health Association collaborated with 14 partners to write to the US Congress in favor of federal research funding on gun violence, currently limited by the 1996 Dickey amendment [81]. Andrew Callaghan Net Worth Final Thoughts, Amy Trask Net Worth 2022: Powerful Women Of The NFL, Marc Glassman Net Worth 2022: The Best Retail Stores In Ohio, Edgardo Franco Net Worth: The Great El General Of The 90s, Wanda Smith Net Worth 2022: The Famous Ex-Host Of V-103, Bty Youngn Net Worth 2022: Famous Talents From The 17th Ward, Luenell Net Worth 2022: Wealth and Lifestyle the Bad Girl of Comedy, Morten Harket Net Worth 2022: Music Icons of the 80s, William AV Cecil Net Worth 2022: The Men of Biltmore and a Century of Legacy, Pardison Fontaine Net Worth 2022: From the Shadows of the Stars, Slade Smiley Net Worth 2022: Getting to Know the RHOC Star. From our sample of social media posts, we reviewed the content of the posts on the basis of 19 different characteristics, such as type of gun, presence of women, and military or police references.

The way of the gun: estimating firearms trafficking across the USMexico border. Reducing Gun Violence in America: Informing Policy with Evidence and Analysis. What is the meaning of All Gas No Brakes?

Future research could help shed light on these questions. Perfect for phone cases, Available as Standard or Express delivery, 100% Secure payment with 256-bit SSL Encryption, Exchange or money back guarantee for all orders. Family themes were found in fewer than 10% of Twitter or YouTube posts. Guns, impulsive angry behavior, and mental disorders: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R).

Wellman RJ, Sugarman DB, DiFranza JR, Winickoff JP. As suggested in the literature on health communications generally [88], understanding the media commonly viewed by gun owners can help in the design of brochures, posters, webpages, and informational materials that may reinforce recommendations made by physicians on the topic of gun ownership (eg, facts on gun ownership and health risks introduced into homes with guns and evidence of decades of predatory advertising for the purpose of increasing sales).

Better understanding the life cycle of guns raises both opportunities and significant challenges to where and how we work as communities to reduce lethal violence. Before Kellermann AL.

Reeping PM, Cerd M, Kalesan B, Wiebe DJ, Galea S, Branas CC. How frequently are gun advertisements appearing as news articles? They got to concealed carry. Although several past studies describe the characteristics of firearm advertising in print magazines and catalogs [2,10,11], the landscape for advertising, sales, and communications has changed radically with the advent of Web-based marketing. Full30 is a reference to a firearm video website that is sponsored by firearm manufacturers and contains almost exclusively videos on guns. Bergkvist L, Zhou KQ. Bromberg JE, Augustson EM, Backinger CL. Several influencers, such as nutnfancy, may be in violation of this policy, and the DoD may be able to take steps to reduce the reach of influencers who gain credibility in promoting firearm sales by visually displaying their current or past military experience. Organizations such as Moms Demand Action have made progress in lobbying retail stores, such as Starbucks and Target, to prohibit guns from their premises. Suggested use for guns by most popular posts (1% CIs displayed). Classic Firearms Tour! Drew University, 36 Madison Ave, Madison, NJ, 07940 1434, United States, Phone: 1 9734083740, firearms, advertising, social media, internet, gender identity, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF).

Madison, NJ, The once common western and cowboy themes were found less than 5% of the time across sources.

Although Glock and Sig Sauer chose highly tailored video advertisements, Palmetto State Armory, a US gunmaker of AK-47s, posted a candid description of the companys history and goals. The Glock video appears to be well received, with over 7000 likes, and a like to dislike ratio of 9:1. One of the most popular retweeted posts across all manufacturers was a post by Anderson Rifles, who retweeted a post originally made by Texas governor, Greg Abbott: Im EMBARRASSED: Texas #2 in nation for new gun purchases, behind CALIFORNIA. In some cases, helpful changes to firearm advertising could emerge from enforcement of existing policy. Prevalence of handgun- and protection-themed advertising in advertisements with and without women (1% CIs displayed).

My dream girl. The video conveys handgun use for home protection and protection for women against stranger rape, while normalizing gun use and supporting defensive gun use as the first and only self-defense tactic. Public health responses to firearms require a closer examination of the company practices that facilitate the widespread distribution and increased lethality of small arms in the United States.

Information aggregated by the ATF demonstrates that production of firearms is concentrated in a few companies.

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