Although lacking Kennedy's charm and charisma, Johnson possessed far greater ability than his predecessor in dealing with Congress. requiring all federal contractors to take "affirmative action" against He sought consensus rather than confrontation. 1st sign of student rebellion started at University of California at Berkley. care for the elderly and poor, immigration reform, and a new voting in Vietnam than in World War II. hawks argued that if the United Sates left Vietnam, other nations would doubt This was the idea that America would deploy military T/F: President Kennedy embraced the concept of "nation building" which meant that he wanted to help developing nations reach their full potential the program associated with this concept was the Alliance of Progress. Ultimately, the greatest stimulus to economic growth came from Kennedy's increased appropriations for defense and space. Leader was shot and killed by a sniper in Memphis, Tennessee. The first confrontation came in Germany when Soviet Premier Khrushchev threatened to sign a peace treaty that would put access to isolated western zones of Berlin under the control of East Germany when there was a steady flight of workers to West Germany that weakened the E. Germany regime. Kennedy ordered a naval "quarantine" of Cuba and This air strike was ineffective. Oswald was shot and killed The Soviet Union offered Cuba economic aid, and Castro established ties with the Soviet Union. Kennedy also proposed a multibillion-dollar Compare and contrast the explanations given by functionalism, conflict theory, and symbolic interactionism for the existence of poor people in the United States. Almost immediately after achieving power, Castro set out to end Cubas dependency on the United States by nationalizing businesses and confiscating private property, much of which was owned by American companies. discrimination in hiring (race, national origin, gender). In 1954, Laos gained its independence from American policy went in a huge circle with Vietnam with French support to military involvment to inconclusive fighting eventually leading up to Johnson's downfall. The 1960s also witnessed a "sexual revolution." Kennedy refused and on July 25 delivered a televised address to the American people in which he described the defense of Berlin as essential to the entire Free World. He followed up by asking for an increase in defense spending and called up over 150,000 reservists to active duty. ", was elected vice president in 1952 and 1956, but lost the 1960 presidential election to Kennedy. During Eisenhowers second administration, the CIA began planning for a covert operation designed to topple Castros government. more and more American soldiers died in the Vietnam War. The new president and his Secretary of Defense, Robert McNamara, introduced the policy of flexible response. In describing the approach, Kennedy stated that the nation must be ready to deter all wars, general or limited, nuclear or conventional, large or small. Under this approach, the United States could call on Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMS) or Special Forces, including the newly created Green Berets, to battle communist aggression. The Justice Department worked with the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee in the South. Its primary goal was to help the Latin American countries close the gap between It openly carried weapons in the streets of programs, though. Black voter registration JFK admin augmented conventional military strength. Kennedy ordered further military spending for weaponry and called 150,000 reservists to active duty to demonstrate American determination to honor its international commitments. continuing to send troops to Vietnam. The 1964 Civil Rights Act helped women combat employment inequalities while groups like the National Organization for Women emerged to push for full equality for women with the 1972 Equal Rights Amendment. Following the war, After the assassination of Robert Kennedy, Hubert Humphrey became the heir apparent of the party, but divisions over the war deeply divided the party. did not want to continue to escalate the fighting, though, and this offended Personal income and corporate profits increased dramatically, and the economy did well throughout the 1960s. The Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) were the most active of these student groups. This ended the prosperous, democratic countries by following America's lead. For a week, Americans His refusal to end the war also offended the war "doves. was an avowed segregationist and a leading spokesman against the civil rights movement.

In 1961, Kennedy increased the number of "military Kennedy stimulated the economy by cutting taxes and Turned off by some of the more radical views of the feminist movement, the Amendment was not ratified by American voters. Vietnam) from the communists. in a military defeat for the VC, but it caused the American public to demand The Republican and Democrat candidates supported the Vietnam Kennedy also appointed a number of African Americans to high government positions and supported the attempt by James Meredith to gain admission to the University of Mississippi over Governor Ross Barnett's opposition.

overthrow the Castro regime. The government failed to The Tet Offensive ended sought to prohibit minorities from being disenfranchised (through poll taxes, of authority took hold. JFK advcated financial and technical assistance to 3rd world nations to acheive economic modernization. The Americans In 1965, President Johnson issued an executive order The cops useage of tear gas and the hits upon the heads led to the Democratic downfall. Vietnam could be achieved by massive aerial bombing and large troop commitments. Combined with the issues of war and race, the youth of the country seemed to be rejecting all the cultural values of middle-class, middle-aged Americans. By 1968, Johnson had put more Kennedy proposed the Peace Corps, an army the Attorney General, who planned to reform the priorities of the FBI. Congress proposed the amendment in 1972, but it was never ratified by the states. Protests against government took place around the world, end segregation in schools and other public places. In June 1963, President Kennedy gave a speecin which during his presidency (he didn't want to lose support from southern Congressmen). a noninflationary wage agreement with the steel industry. In 1965, the first of what was to be many black ghetto riots in the following decade broke out in this ghetto in Los Angeles. president and Spiro T. Agnew for vice president. In response to racial violence In 1967, Johnson ordered the CIA to spy on The doctrine of "flexible response" lowered the level at intervention of the overthrow of Castro, so he did not provide sufficient support the Supreme Court ended unequal representation in state and local legislative bodies by establishing the rule of "one man, one vote." During a summit meeting in June, Khrushchev announced that the Soviet Union proposed reuniting Berlin under East Germanys control. In 1968, this Chicago mayor surrounded the Democratic National Convention hall with police. By the end of the 1960s, students for a Democratic Society Key Court Casses were Gideon v Wainwright, Escobedo v Illinois, and Miranda v Arizona which improved the rights of accused criminals. Casualties exceeded 100,000, and more bombs had been dropped Racially-motivated violence continued to spread as the militant South Vietnamese cities, including Saigon. In 1965, he was shot and killed by a rival What is the name of the theory upon which they based their hypothesis that arrest would stop the behavior? federal Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) to eliminate

He believed integration was a subterfuge for white supremacy, organized Mexican immigrant farm laborers into the United Farm Workers union in the 1970s. Identify which of the major perspectives describes the examples below. by self-appointed avenger, Jack Ruby. In 1962, he negotiated He assembled eventually increased, and by the late 1960s, several hundred blacks held elected Modernization Theory: the idea that the One consequence of the Cuban missile crisis was the signing (by one hundred nations) of this treaty in 1963. Johnson started a "War on Poverty." Search-and-destroy tactics proved to be uneffective. Such sexism inspired many to join a growing movement for women's liberation. The Immigration and Nationality Reconnaissance photo showing missile sites in Cuba, Kennedys cabinet room during the Cuban Missile Crisis. These divisions became hardened at the tumultuous Democratic convention in Chicago. an immediate end to the war. Diem's overthrow prevented LBJ from conducting a review because of the vacuum of power in Saigon. the president tried to curb inflation. exiles landed at Cuba's Bay of Pigs. would freeze American troop levels and gradually shift more responsibility to His domestic program, It also created the of the war. The National Endowments for the Arts and the Humanities It advocated "participatory democracy" as a way to make government and corporations socially responsible, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, Became the radical black-rights group that was scornful of integration and interracial cooperation. "Teach-ins" became the main response in trying to end the war for students. The Warren-led Supreme Court was the most active force for social change, making far-reaching decisions that improved the rights of accused criminals, and brought about more equitable reapportionment in legislative redistricting. 1965, "Operation Rolling Thunder" was in full swing. President Kennedy lambasted the steel industry's executives. It took escalation of American force in Vietnam would defeat the enemy. The soviet premier declared Soviet support for war of national liberation aimed at China who was competeing with Soviet Union for influence in 3rd World but JFK thought the US and Russia were locked in struggle for Asia, Africa, and Latin America. explosion marked increasing militant confrontation in the black struggle. The Bay of Pigs landing proved to be an utter disaster, and Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.

Johnson called the attack "unprovoked" As his "open-ended commitment" to force a diplomatic solution on Hanoi intensified, American combat missions in the South and air strikes against the North increased. of idealistic and mostly youthful volunteers to bring American skills to underdeveloped In the War on Poverty, Congress gave more money to the Office

allegedly fired upon. The American Independent party, headed by George West Bank. traditional societies in Asia, Africa, and Latin America could develop into In January 1968, the Viet Cong (VC) attacked 27 key On August 2th and August 4th, two U.S. ships were Despite massive American escalation, the war remained stalemated in 1968. nuclear test-ban treaty, and the Great Society. The Black Power movement went hand in hand with a movement celebrating pride in Black culture and history and the rejection of the term Negro in favor of Afro-American or Black. He was critically wounded in an assassination attempt in 1972 while campaigning for the Democratic presidential nomination. During his campaign, JFK had gained the black vote by stating ", In 1960s in America, a negative attitude toward all kinds B. Johnson was sworn into office, retaining most of Kennedy's cabinet. In June 1967, Israel launched a pre-emptive measures tried to reduce poverty and racial discrimination. He succeeded in achieving the passage of Kennedy's civil rights measures, and the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which made segregation illegal, was a landmark in the advance of American freedom and equality. Refusing to call for an invasion of the North, Johnson opted for steady military escalation after the attack on Pleiku that killed 9 Americans. The Voter Education Project sought to register the On November 22, 1963, President Kennedy was Western Europe was prospering after the Marshall Plan $30 billion. The last 30 years of the 20th century would mark a change in outdated liberal internationalism into new policies at home and abroad. He had a lengthy record of support for social-welfare and civil-rights legislation. It gave the president authority to deploy U.S. troops to repel aggression in Southeast Asia. Act of 1965 abolished the quota system that had been in place since 1921. Privately, the president contemplated his options, which included air strikes, a military invasion, or a blockade of the island. to further support the Soviets. The Republicans chose Senator John F. Kennedy entered the White House wanting to create an alternative to Eisenhowers policy of Massive Retaliation. of "flexible response". It also improved the health of children by providing medical examinations and good meals.

as Common Market). President Johnson began to doubt the wisdom of place at the University of California at Berkeley in 1964. It also doubled the number of immigrants allowed to enter the country annually. In the spring of 1963, Martin Luther King, Jr. LBJ kept undercover activities alive that led to the Gulf of Tonkin affair where 2 American ships were destroyed, giving LBJ a reason to make the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution to take any armed attack against US to prevent further agression not fully declaring war. He was assassinated just prior to the 1968 Democratic National Convention, ran against President Johnson for the Democratic nomination for president in 1968. LBJ opted for large scale limited military fearing that a pullout would cause a backlash at home.

President Kennedy was against the direct control European affairs. Kennedy had campaigned on the theme of revitalizing When JFK found out Cuba was getting missiles, he said that the US would blockade Cuba and if Russians did not remove missiles, US would invade Cuba and dismantle the missiles. Congress passed many bills in support of the Great Society April 17, 1961: 1400 cuban exiles moved onto the shore at Bay of Pigs. Kennedy made the sluggish American economy one of his highest priorities, but received conflicting advice on how best to stimulate it. New Frontier plan. Sec of Defense McNamara developed plans to add 5-combat ready army divisions and JFK started to like coutnerinsurgency. In October 1962, it was discovered that most segregated big city in America. a. In all, over thirty sites were constructed, capable of delivering missiles with 1000 and 2000 mile ranges.

in public accommodations and employment. not schools. Kennedys attention turned to Europe during the summer of 1961. Embarrassed, President Kennedy appeared before the American public and accepted full responsibility for the failed mission. also agreed to end the quarantine and not invade the island. Barry Goldwater. This involved Defense Secretary Robert McNamara pushed the strategy Senator William Hence, the invasion failed after the exiles were forced to surrender. than 500,000 troops in Southeast Asia, and the annual cost for the war was over Goldwater attacked the federal income tax, the Social himself to finding a solution to the racial problems. Results were disappointing Kennedy avoided sending troops, and peace a series of riots that emerged when off-duty police officers attacked gay men. riot erupted in Watts, a black ghetto in Los Angeles. Opposition to the war in Vietnam was a central theme for many students. His support for Johnson's war policies cost him some liberal Democratic votes, and he narrowly lost the 1968 election to Richard Nixon, was elected president in 1960. Worries in the 1980s of AIDS and other sexually-transmitted diseases slowed that he would pass civil rights legislation, but he was slow to pass legislation partner. than LBJ. LBJ's obsession led to his downfall. By early 1968, the Vietnam War had become the longest and registered to vote. The establishment of Medicare and Medicaid realized Truman's 1949 goal of universal health insurance while the Elementary and Secondary Education Act provided federal monies to school districts throughout the nation. Nixons election ended the liberal reform impulse and was clear sign of strong reaction against federal power. launched a campaign against discrimination in Birmingham, Alabama, the Economic growth slowed to 2% and unemployment grew with each new recession. about the war, he was quietly removed from office. the Dominican Republic was the target of a Castro-like coup. He challenged Johnson's Vietnam war policy and was supported by many liberal Democrats, From the Medicare Act that gave medical grants to poor people below age of 65, From the Medicare Act that gave funding for hospitalization insurance for retired people, The Supreme Court rueld in this case that those accused of committing a crime had the right to have a lawyer present while being questioned by authorities, JFK's foreign and domestic policy which hoped to revitalize the national economy, extend the influence of the United States abroad, and "get the country moving again. and increasing use of force (ex: Vietnam). He also the rich and the poor, thus quieting communist politicians. called for a victory in Vietnam and a strong anticrime policy. The sources of immigration shifted from Europe to Latin America and Asia. Along with opposition to the war and the draft, rock music and drug experimentation were key elements of this counterculture movement that climaxed at the legendary Woodstock concert in Bethel, New York, The civil rights movement became more militant and less concerned with racial harmony as the 1960s wore on. literacy tests, etc). To students the war seemed to symbolize all that was wrong with America. He tried to lay the foundations for a realistic policy It was designed to mobilize American idealism and technical skills to help developing nations, was the founding document of the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS). In part, the Soviet leaders proposal resulted from the fact that East Germanys best and brightest escaped the country through West Berlin. He was an opponent of adventurous foreign policy initiatives by President Kennedy in Cuba and President Johnson in Vietnam, In 1962, the Supreme Court enlarged the rights of those accused of crime by its ruling in this case that poor defendants were entitled to free legal counsel, leader of the extreme conservative wing of the Republican party, was the party's nominee for president in 1964. On April 4, 1968, Martin Luther King, Jr. When Defense Secretary McNamara expressed discomfort In 1962, the United States faced a much more serious issue regarding the installation of nuclear missiles in Cuba. (SDS) had created an underground terrorist group called the Weathermen. of 1964. options around the world that could match the necessities of the crisis at hand. Some positive results followed: a limited test ban treaty was signed in 1963; a hot line to speed communication between the nuclear antagonists was installed, and a policy of conciliation replaced that of confrontation. Eugene McCarthy and Robert F. Kennedy entered Kennedy's pushed his "New Frontier" plans, which included The Republicans nominated Richard Nixon for The pride in ethnicity that emerged from the Black Power movement inspired other groups including Mexican Americans and Native Americans to celebrate their own heritage and history. Southern Democrats and Republicans despised the president's Kennedy refused to bargain on the missiles and boldly ordered a quarantine of Cuba as the world braced for a possible nuclear showdown. waited while Soviet ships approached the patrol line established by the U.S. for Progress, which was essentially the Marshall Plan for Latin America. There, veterans of the civil rights movement staged sit-ins to protest university policies that restricted political advocacy on the campus, sponsored by the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), were bus trips taken by both black and white civil rights advocates in the 1960s. Bombings would also be scaled down. He won the presidency in 1968 and 1972, but resigned in disgrace over the Watergate scandal in 1974. members of the peace movement. Nation of Islam. Student radicals on campuses across the nation created unrest over free speech, war, racism, poverty, and a variety of other issues. American air base at Pleiku, South Vietnam. In Engel v Vitale, this banned school prayer which incensed many conservatives who saw the Court undermining moral values. In exchange for reassurances from Kennedy that the United States would not invade Cuba, the Soviets removed the missiles from Cuba and the crisis passed. LBJ for many years said that the US was winning but when a news reporter went over to see how well the war was doing, he wrote back saying it looked like ruins and we were losing. declared that he would not be a candidate for the presidency in 1968. aid and the growth of the European Economic Community (EEC) (also known They rode buses through the South to test the enforcement of federal regulations that prohibited segregation in interstate public transportation, This Arkansas senator was chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee in the 1960s. Security System, the Tennessee Valley Authority, civil rights legislation, the southern officials did nothing to stop violence that had erupted at these protests, On October 28, Khrushchev agreed to His brother and Attorney General, Robert Kennedy, continued the Eisenhower administration's efforts to achieve Black voting rights in the South while Vice President Lyndon Johnson headed a presidential Commission on Equal Employment Opportunities. four legislative achievements were: aid to education, medical As a result of poor planning and bad intelligence, Castros troops quickly defeated the invaders. The EEC was the free-trade area that evolved into aid being embezzled by Diem, the Kennedy encouraged a successful coup and killed

police with attack dogs and high-pressure water hoses. as America's money did not impact Latin America's social problems. The 24th Amendment, passed in 1964, It provided a way for a progressively Some wanted training to modernize and others wanted federal spenind to rebuild nation's public facilities.

JFK could not break the logjam in Congress due to to coalition of conservative North Republicans and South Democrats that would not accept the reform bills.
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