than fore wings, the 2 pairs similar in form and Antennae more or less Biological Records Centre, Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Huntingdon, England. (Note: The different modules of the Lacewing Digital Library are individually authored, constitute distinct publications, and should be cited separately. Antennae moniliform ), Head well-developed with ocelli, antennae, and chewing or pinching mouthparts, Three pairs of thoracic legs; tarsi 1-segmented; claws paired, Aquatic forms have thread-like gills on most abdominal segments, Front and hind wing membranous, similar in size, Extensive branching of venation in all wings; crossveins abundant especially along leading edge (costal margin), A lacewings egg sits atop a slender stalk secreted by the females reproductive system. fused stems of R1 and Rs, 9b. Ocelli present Veins and crossveins not forming a recurrent vein; discal area of wings not differentiated from The larvae of antlions and lacewings have specialized mouthparts with large, sickle-shaped mandibles and maxillae that interlock to form pincers. The modern English translation nerve-wings is appropriate because it alludes to the extensive branching found in the wing veins of most Neuroptera.

Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation, 126, 97-108. Except for larval spongillaflies (family Sisyridae) which feed on fresh-water sponges, all members are terrestrial. slender and strongly clavate .. Ascalaphidae ; & , 22a. Accessed on [fill in date of last site access]. Cite this Publication as: Oswald, J. D. World Neuropterida Metakey. species; costal area of fore wing very broad; the Sc, R1 and Rs are closely in 24 genera of 8 families in BC (. British freshwater Megaloptera and Neuroptera: a key with ecological notes. Classification], 1a. The phylogenetic position of the Rhachiberothinae and the basal sistergroup relationships within the Mantispidae (Neuroptera), Phylogenetic relevance of the genital sclerites of Neuropterida (Insecta: Holometabola), A revision of the family Rhachiberothidae Tjeder, 1959, stat.n. Taxonomy: Neuroptera is divided into two suborders: In adults, the suborders are distinguished by mitochondrial DNA http://genent.cals.ncsu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/id_audio_Neuroptera.mp3, Hemerobiiformia (lacewings, mantiflies, etc. A new species of Haploberotha (Neuroptera: Berothidae) from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber, Beaded lacewings (Neuroptera: Berothidae) in amber from the Lower Cretaceous of Spain, A remarkable new thorny lacewing from mid-Cretaceous amber from northern Myanmar (Neuroptera: Rhachiberothidae). With 3 ocelli present; 4th The accumulated fecal material is called a. Antlion larvae are sometimes known as doodlebugs. Chrysopidae Green lacewings If the specimen is identified it is very useful to record the name of the person who identified it. Oswald), Beckemeyer R.J. Neuropterida (Neuroptera, Megaloptera and Raphidioptera) of Kansas. The stamp pictured here is one of 16 insect stamps issued in 1992 by Montserrat, one of the Leeward Islands in the British West Indies. The present paper comprises the first illustrated key for the genera of the Berothidae. Contributors own the copyright to and are solely responsible for contributed content.Click the contributor's name for licensing and usage information. P phylogenetic analysis of the heterogeneous Neuroptera remains a challenge with respect to selection of the proper genes and mutatis mutandis the morphological approach, and the hypothesis of a sistergroup relationship Raphidioptera put forward in recent morphological analyses is supported. Larvae of spongillaflies, family Sisyridae, are predators of freshwater sponges. This beneficial insect is recognized as an important biological control agent throughout much of the world. Some lacewing larvae camouflage themselves by attaching the dead bodies of their prey to spines on their back. Only one other order, the Coleoptera, makes silk in the same manner as Neuroptera. Scope Search Wings much narrower cross veins abundant; wings without whitish powder, 4b. Carpenter (1954) and Schlinger & Doutt (1964) by E. F. Legner: [Please refer to and for more illustrations], NEUROPTERA [Latest filiform; ovipositor not exserted .. (Planipennia), 2b. Author Contact Information: (JDO, corresponding author) j-oswald@tamu.edu. wider than hind wing . Apochrysidae ; & , 18a. You must have JavaScript enabled to use this form. For more information on preserving your specimens, see Plant, 1997. Unfortunately, to identify lacewings, snakeflies, alderflies and mecopterans to species level specimens usually have to be collected. Click it to build a custom PDF with species shown on that page or for all the species within that taxonomic level. Everything else copyright 2003-2022 Iowa State University, unless otherwise noted. Greek Originsof Name: Neuroptera is derived from the Greek word neuron meaning sinew and ptera meaning wings. Peyerimhoffina gracilis (Schneider, 1851) (Neur. They are relatively abundant in the fossil record of various Cretaceous. 5. https://lacewing.tamu.edu/Metakey/Main.

Nielsen CC-BY) (Image: O.F. distinctly clavate or flattened, subcostal cell without cross veins, 20b. http://genent.cals.ncsu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/id_audio_Neuroptera.mp3. Distribution: Common worldwide, with multiple families, The order Neuroptera includes the lacewings, antlions, mantisflies, and owlflies along with several other minor groups. complete metamorphosis(egg, larva, pupa, adult) Fore wings with Sc areas by series of cross veins; Sc and R1 fused apically . Polystoechotidae ; & , 14b. Hemerobiidae Brown lacewings When they pupate, larvae of lacewings and antlions dig a small cavity in the soil and spin a loose silken cocoon around themselves. 2 vols. If you do take a specimen it is important to note down at a minimum, the Date, Location name, OS Grid Reference/GPS Latitude and Longitude, and Recorders name. These books are in German and unfortunately very expensive.

2013. Berothidae ; & , 18b. Four membranous wings: FW and HW about same size or HW a little wider at base; wings usually held rooflike over body at rest, generally with many veins: Antennae long, many-segmented, threadlike, pectinate or clubbed: ocelli present or not, depending on family, Forewings and hindwings similar in size and shape, Prothorax not lengthened, except in Mantispidae, Many are valuable natural enemies of pests, esp. Some species are reared and sold commercially as biocontrol agents. Ocelli present Hertfordshire This has a well-illustrated guide to identifying some species of lacewings, snakeflies, alderflies and mecopterans found in Britain. clubbed, or flattened apically; body and wings pubescent Myrmeleontidae ; & , 22b. The mecopteran Boreus hyemalis is also easy to distinguish from all other mecopterans without taking a specimen. Large moth-like Vertex convex For many years, biologists thought these eggs were the fruiting bodies of a fungus they called. If you need expert professional advice, contact your local extension office. An Interactive Index to the Identification Keys of the Extant and Fossil

The external morphology and male genitalia are illustrated, providing complementary information to the original description of Spiroberotha sanctarosae Adams, 1989, as well as a list of species of Central- and South American Berothidae. All larvae are aquatic, pupation takes place in the soil beside streams, and the adult insects are rarely found far from their breeding sites. American Insects: A Handbook of the Insects of America North of Mexico, Species catalog of the Neuroptera, Megaloptera, and Raphidioptera of America North of Mexico, Neuropterida Species of the World catalogue (by J.D. Some species however, require dissection or clearing of their abdomens (using 10% potassium hydroxide see Plant 1997 for details of this method) to view diagnostic characters. Look for this PDF icon as you search and browse. Distribution maps for all genera are provided and distribution areas are discussed. ; Volume 2: 355 pp. apparently 2 radial sectors (Rs), By clicking accept or continuing to use the site, you agree to the terms outlined in our. Make sure the insect has thoroughly thawed out before handling, to avoid damage.

2021, Britain's Insects: A Field Guide to the Insects of Great Britain and Ireland, Wild Guides, 608pp. This is an essential resource to consult if you have a specimen that does not quite fit with Plants 1997 key, as you may have a first record of a mainland European species in the British Isles (if this is the case the specimen should be retained and sent for confirmation). : Hemerobiidae) new to Britain. : Chrysopidae): A green lacewing new to Britain. Fore wing with The function and phylogenetic implications of the tentorium in adult Neuroptera (Insecta). All collected insects should be preserved, either pinned or in alcohol, with labels giving the Date collected, Location name, OS Grid Reference/GPS Latitude and Longitude, Recorders name, Species name, and Identifier's name. one of which is R2+3 and the other R4+5 Sympherobiidae ; & , 12a. Hind wings not longer Freshwater Biological Association Scientific Publication, Volume 54, pages: 1-69.

Lacewing larvae are beneficial as predators of agricultural pests (aphids, whiteflies and scale insects). It is included here because it is rather easy to confuse gyrinid larvae for megalopteran Corydalidae. wide .. Myiodactylidae ; Adults> & , 19b. Most species are rather weak fliers. Ascalaphidae Owlflies Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical). Antennae strongly The same is true of Frasers 1959 Key, which also has some errors within. Humeral cross vein Additional Sources of Information Related to "Insects", Bumble Bee Species Accounts at Montana Entomology Collection, Field Guide to Common Western Grasshoppers, Native Wildflowers and Bees of Western Montana, Natural Heritage MapViewer (Statewide Database of Animal Observations), North American Dragonflies - Slater Museum of Natural History, USDA Grasshoppers: their biology, identification, and management, Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation. Myrmeleon formicarius Cook, D. et al. Antennae longer, Aquatic or semiaquatic species predominate in several subfamilies. Brock, P.D. less in number; wings covered with whitish powder .. Coniopterigidae ; & , 5a. Antennae about as As adults, all neuropterans have two pairs of membranous wings with an extensive pattern of veins and crossveins. (1942a), Brues, Melander &

Many holometabolous insects exhibit similar behavior, but neuropterans are unusual because their silk is produced by Malpighian tubules (excretory organs) and spun from the anus. Osmylus fulvicephalus Drepanepteryx phalaenoides Boreus hyemalis, (image: O.F. 14 West Road Wings of nearly equal Phylogeny and evolution of Neuropterida: Where have wings of lace taken us? elongated and ribbon-like, often with widened, spoon-like ends . Nemopteridae ; & , 8b. Mantispidae Mantisflies.

The common green lacewing (Chrysopa carnea) is a predator of aphids in both its adult and larval stages. and R fused before wing tip; seed-like scales often present on wings Fore wing with 3 or more branches of Rs present, veins R4 and R5 arising separately Hemerobiidae ; & , 11b. Field Studies Council, AIDGAP guide, 90pp. Nearly all Neuroptera families have entomophagous stages. Nielsen CC-BY) (Image: G.S. Department of Entomology, Texas A&M University Each key has also been scored for the scientific names and ranks of its Neuropterida terminal taxa (>25,000 in total). . Raphidiidae ; & , 23b. A key to the adults of British lacewings and their allies (Neuroptera, Megaloptera, Raphidioptera and Mecoptera). 2014. Ethyl acetate in killing jars will also euthanize the insect (after 20 minutes) but may discolour green lacewings if left in for a long time. are also useful to record. You can easily identify some of the species using a microscope without the need for dissection. . Trichomatidae ; & , 19a. First fossil larvae of Berothidae (Neuroptera) from Baltic amber, with notes on the biology and termitophily of the family. ovipositor exserted .. (Raphidiodea), 3a. Volume 1: 495 pp.

Fore wing distinctly segment of tarsi not bilobed Corydalidae ; & , 4a. Myrmeleontidae Antlions This is an excellent resource on identifying the species from the British Isles. Once impaled on these pincers, a preys body contents are sucked out through hollow food channels running between the adjacent surfaces of the mandibles and maxillae. 203 pp. To prevent automated spam submissions leave this field empty. Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation, 125, 174-178. Firstly, remember not to do bulk sampling, as this can be detrimental for a population, whereas the collection of individual specimens will not cause any harm. (Insecta: Neuropterida) of the World, John D. Oswald A phylogenetic analysis based on the matrix of morphological characters of Aspck and Nemeschkal (1998) using additional taxa and a modified approach concerning the homology of the genital sclerites (Aspck and Aspck 2008) yielded the following conflicting results: (i) The Trichomatinae are nested within the Nosybinae. Peyerimhoffina gracilis Donato, J. et al., 2001. Terminal taxa may be searched using the scientific names originally included in each key, or by their current scientific names in the Lacewing Digital Library standard taxonomy. Phylogeny of the Neuropterida: a first molecular approach, The Berothidae of Taiwan (Neuroptera: Neuropterida). forming a recurrent vein; discal area of wings distinct from costal and marginal On the occurrence of Nineta pallida (Schneider, 1846) and N. inpunctata (Reuter, 1894) in the British Isles and remarks on these rare green lacewings (Neu. aphids and some other homopterans, Neuroptera (Antlions, Lacewings, and Allies). Suborder Hemerobiiformia terrestrial predatory and parasitic larvae, Suborder Myrmeleontiformia terrestrial predatory larvae. Lacewing larvae are usually found in vegetation where they typically feed on aphids, mites, and scale insects. Neuroptera used to be treated by some workers in a broader sense, to include Planipennia (lacewings, antlions, owlflies, etc. The remaining taxon in this key is that of the beetle family Gyrinidae (order Coleoptera). Aspck, H.; Aspck, U.; Hlzel, H.; Rausch, H. 1980. Large moth-like View 9 excerpts, references results, background and methods. Except where otherwise noted, content on this site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution, Non-Commercial CC BY-NC Licence. There are only a few exceptions to this, for example, the distinctive osmylid, Osmylus fulvicephalus, whose patterned wings, large size and red head separate it from all other British Isles neuropterans. We follow The Insects of Australia by keeping the orders separate but for convenience present them in a single key. At rest, the wings are folded flat over the abdomen or held tent-like over the body. In most cases, the adults of these insects are also predators the non-predatory species usually feed on nectar, pollen, or honeydew. Antlions,Lacewings,andAllies(Neuroptera). and R not fused apically; hairs of body and wing conspicuously long In addition, the hemerobiid, Drepanepteryx phalaenoides, with its distinctively shaped hooked forewings separate it from all other British Isles neuropterans. Results from holomorphological and recent molecular cladistic analyses of Neuropterida agree in supporting the sistergroup relationships between: (1) the Raphidioptera and the clade Megaloptera+Neuroptera, and (2) the suborder Nevrorthiformia and all other Neuroptera. As larvae, lacewings and antlions do not have a complete digestive system: the midgut ends in a dead end.

: Myrmeleontidae): An ant-lion new to Britain. Light traps and sweep netting are good ways to collect specimens. For information on the current version and release of this publication see the Versions page.) The other two families, Sisyridae (spongeflies) and Neurorthidae, are of smaller insects and always associated with water. Megaloptera comprises just two families worldwide. The best published resource for the identification of British Isles lacewings and allies is: Plant, C. W. 1997. To create your own list of species, use the PDF Creator tool at the bottom of the Advanced Search page. The set of keys included in the metakey is believed to represent a substantial majority of the keys that have been published to date, worldwide, to identify neuropterid insects to genus level or below. Antennae weakly FILE: Bibliography Bibliography #2 Terminology Antennae at least Development: Holometabola i.e. . Inocellidae ; & . Direct links to digital copies of publications containing keys are provided where available and permissible. hind wing folded fan-like when not in use .. (Sialodea), 2a. in both sexes; ocelli absent; ovipositor not exserted, 10b. Pronunciation: [NEUR-op-ter-a] Killingtons 1936/7 monograph on British Neuroptera has a wealth of information on the lacewings found in Britain, some of which is still relevant, however care should to be taken as it was published over 80 years ago and therefore some information is now out of date. Make sure to say whether you want the specimen returned after identification - if you do make sure postage stamps or arrangements for payment for return postage is included. Neuroptera Stamp: Provisional atlas of the lacewings and allied insects (Neuroptera, Megaloptera, Raphidioptera & Mecoptera) of Britain & Ireland. If you want more information on lacewing and allies distribution, habitats and collecting techniques see: Plant, C. W. 1994. Head anatomy of adult Sisyra terminalis (Insecta: Neuroptera: Sisyridae)--functional adaptations and phylogenetic implications. For each included key, data have been captured about its geographic and taxonomic scopes; the sexes and life stages that it treats; its language, format, and number of couplets; and its location in the literature (reference citation, year of publication, and first page of key). All rights reserved. Antennae elongated Fore wing with 2 or more branches of Rs arising from the apparently Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation, 110, 288-289.

We strive to provide accurate information, but we are mostly just amateurs attempting to make sense of a diverse natural world. Neuroptera comprises about 18 families worldwide (14 in Australia) but the aquatic component is restricted to three families within the superfamily Osmyloidea. cylindrical; subcostal area with many cross veins .. Nymphidae ; & , 21a. Interactive search functionality is provided that enables the display of lists of keys that match user-input criteria from one or more of these metadata axes. Four fossil larvae of Berothidae (Neuroptera) from Baltic amber are described in detail, and the main characters of a fifth larva are discussed briefly, and it is presumed that termitophily might have evolved during the Cretaceous (or in the early Cenozoic), and only in Berothinae ( or in subfamilies closely related to this group).
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