More than a million people had been forced from their homes: Azerbaijanis fled Armenia, Nagorno-Karabakh and the adjacent territories, while Armenians left homes in Azerbaijan. [58][59] Prior to the transfer of control, Armenians living in Agdam District also set their homes on fire,[60] and on 19 November, Agence France-Presse reported that Armenian soldiers had destroyed their headquarters in Aghdam. Crisis Group has generated a timeline of political developments and several datasets by collecting information regarding casualties, detentions and incidents (uses of drones, heavy weaponry and special operations) reported in open sources in Armenia, Azerbaijan and the de facto Nagorno-Karabakh entity from 2015 onward. On 28 September 2020, Armenia submitted a request for interim measures to the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR). Reports of incidents: incidents involving drones, heavy weaponry and/or special operations by armed forces. [82] Armenian military authorities then stated that half of the mine area had been passed to Azerbaijan. Nagorno-Karabakh Searching for a Solution. The subjective views of the parties may be an indicator, but are not determinative for the classification of a situation. According to Armenia, Article 4 of the Ceasefire Agreement only applies to territories surrounding Nagorno-Karabakh, which Armenia already handed over to Azerbaijan. Based on the bilateral agreement between Russia and Turkey, the joint ceasefire-monitoring center was opened on 30 January 2021 in Aghdam district in Azerbaijan. First, the armed forces of a foreign state are physically present in the territory and the territorial state did not consent to their presence. For further information on overall control, see contemporary challenges for classification control over proxy forces. [74] Internally displaced Azerbaijanis from Kalbajar who had settled in Ganja also celebrated the occasion. Such an overall control over an organized armed group exists where a State has a role in organizing, coordinating or planning the military actions of the military group, in addition to financing, training and equipping or providing operational support to that group.International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, Prosecutor v Duko Tadi, Appeals Chamber, Judgment, IT-94-1-A, 15 July 1999, 137. This section includes a brief discussion of the April 2016 escalation, which is not, however, included in the data tracking. For specific time periods (in particular during the flare-up of fighting between 2 and 11 April 2016 or during the 2020 war), data is limited, disputed, or unavailable. This agreement was codified in a Russian-brokered ceasefire agreement and will be enforced by Russian peacekeepers under an initial 5-year mandate. Drone use: drones used for reconnaissance or strikes in the conflict zone. On the other hand, Azerbaijan affirmed that it was a counteroffensive to suppress Armenias combat activity and ensure the safety of the population.Fighting erupts between Armenia, Azerbaijan over disputed region, Al-Jazeera, 27 September 2020. [71][72] The President of Azerbaijan, Ilham Aliyev, vowed to rebuild and revive Kalbajar District,[73] and the event was also celebrated by a rally in Baku.

Armenia remains bound by its international human rights law obligations in the territory it occupies. A. Souleimanov and H. Aliyev, Azerbaijan and Armenia Eager to Revive Nagorno-Karabakh Peace Talks, CACI Analyst, 23 January 2019;A. Ohanyan, At long last, peace might be possible between Armenia and Azerbaijan. For incidents that spanned multiple days, we used the last reported date. The negotiations resulted in a new commitment to the ceasefire, which contributed to a de-escalation along the line of contact in early 2019. The Armenian-occupied territories surrounding Nagorno-Karabakh[a] were areas of Azerbaijan, situated outside the former Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast (NKAO), which were occupied by the ethnic Armenian military forces of the breakaway Republic of Artsakh (back then the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic) with the military support from Armenia, from the end of the First Nagorno-Karabakh War (19881994) to 2020, when the territories were returned to Azerbaijani control by military force or handed over in accordance to the 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh ceasefire agreement (with the exception of the Lachin corridor). Based on an extensive study, the International Committee of the Red Cross maintains a, Contemporary challenges for classification, contemporary challenges for classification control over proxy forces, Statement by President of the Republic of Azerbaijan, Prime Minister of the Republic of Armenia and President of the Russian Federation, The Recent Ceasefire in Nagorno-Karabakh: Territorial Control, Peacekeepers and Question of Status, Process for Withdrawal of Armenian Troops from Karabakh Began, In Karabakh Deal, As Many Questions as Answers, military occupation elements of occupation, contemporary challenges for classification control over proxy forces, Determining the Beginning and End of an Occupation Under International Humanitarian Law, Guide on Article 1 of the European Convention on Human Rights: Obligations to Respect Human Rights Concepts of Jurisdiction and Imputability, International Mediators condemn ceasefire violations in Nagorno-Karabakh, Revamping the Nagorny Karabakh Peace Process, Getting from Ceasefire to Peace in Nagorno-Karabakh, Armenia and Azerbaijan Unleashed the War of Interpretations, Improving Prospects for Peace after the Nagorno-Karabakh War, Interview: Thomas De Waal on Whats Next For Nagorno-Karabakh, Armenian-Azerbaijani Relations, Russia and Turkey Open Joint Military Center in Azerbaijan, Azerbaijan-Armenia Conflict is a Reminder of Europes Instability, Nagorno-Karbakhs War. Heres whats needed, The Washington Post, 20 March 2019.

Agdam was a predominantly Azerbaijani town until the 1993 battle over the city,[61] after which it became a ghost town,[60] labelled the Hiroshima of Caucasus,[62][63] The Associated Press reported that Aghdam Mosque, which had been vandalized with graffiti and used as a stable for cattle and swine, was the town's only structurally whole building. [19], An OSCE Fact-Finding Mission visited the occupied territories in 2005 to inspect settlement activity in the area and report its findings to the Co-Chairs of the OSCE Minsk Group. CRISISGROUP. 336, . What happens on the front lines depends in part on what officials say and do in regional capitals and around the world - and vice versa. International Crisis Group, Improving Prospects for Peace after the Nagorno-Karabakh War,Crisis Group Europe Briefing No 91, 22 December 2020, p. 4. Azerbaijan's Presidential Office stated that it took the worsening weather and the fact that there was only one road to Armenia into consideration when agreeing to extend the deadline. On 27 September 2020, heavy fighting broke out in Nagorno Karabakh. According to reports, Armenian troops were present/guard the line of contact, i.e. International Crisis Group, Getting from Ceasefire to Peace in Nagorno-Karabakh, 10 November 2020. Second, the de facto authorities exercise effective control over a territory. See the information provided for by Armenia during proceedings before the European Court: ECtHR, Chiragov and Others v Armenia, Grand Chamber, Judgment, App no 13216/05, 16 June 2015, 161. All of these are plotted on a map which includes front lines before and after the 2020 war, drawn using satellite imagery, and the NKAO, as defined by Soviet-era maps. The law of military occupation is set forth in the 1907 Hague Convention (IV) Respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land and its Annex: Regulations Concerning the Laws and Customs on Land, the 1949 Geneva Conventions (IV) Relative to the Protection of Civilians Persons in Time of War and the 1977 Additional Protocol I applicable to International Armed Conflicts. [68] On 22 November, the Azerbaijani military reported that it had defused more than 150 mines in the district. [86] The Russian peacekeepers also set up a post in a town previously called Zabukh by the local Azerbaijanis before it was destroyed in 1992, but later on the ruins there was built a village inhabited by Lebanese-Armenians. A/RES/62/243, 25 April 2008, 2;UNGA A/RES/60/285, 7 September 2006. [27], On 27 September 2020, a war broke out in Nagorno-Karabakh, following skirmishes that occurred on the border between Armenia and Azerbaijan in July 2020. On 1 December 2020, the Court decided to lift the interim measure in the case of Armenia v Turkey indicated on 6 October 2020. Crisis Groups datasets, upon which this Visual Explainer is based, are available here. Between 12 and 16 July 2020, fighting erupted along the border between Movses in Armenia and Agdam in Azerbaijan, a densely populated area. Both Armenia and Azerbaijan are States Parties to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the International Covenant on Economic Social and Cultural Rights, and the European Convention on Human Rights. [15], In the wake of the 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh war, Armenian forces lost control of Fuzuli, Jabrayil, Zangilan and Qubadli districts, and Armenia agreed to withdraw its forces from Agdam, Kalbajar and Lachin districts, returning them to Azerbaijani control, by 20 November, 25 November and 1 December 2020, respectively. [49] Some Armenians took their dead relatives' remains with them,[50] and Reuters reported that villagers were "carting off everything they could as trucks nearby loaded up with household possessions". These then flared into outright fighting. ][66] Rustam Muradov, commander of the Russian peacekeeping task force in the region, stated that the handover operation had been carried out without incident. Armenian and Azerbaijani authorities started to demarcate the border on the same day.

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When fighting ceased in 1994, Nagorno-Karabakh and seven adjacent districts were wholly or partially controlled by Armenian forces. The situation in the occupied territories of Azerbaijan", "United Nations A/62/PV.86 General Assembly Sixty-second session", "Moscow confirms peace deal signed, complete cessation of hostilities", " ", -, "" , , : , : , "" "", " ": , "Report of the OSCE Fact-Finding Mission (FFM) to the Occupied Territories of Azerbaijan Surrounding Nagorno-Karabakh (NK)", " , ", "Hierarchical Global Structures and Their Influence on Azerbaijani Views of International Politics", " Weekly - . See the information provided for by Armenia during proceedings before the European Court: ECtHR. ", "Murov da silsilsindki hmiyytli yksklik azad olunub", "Azerbaijani army's counter-offensive operation continues", "MN: Murov da silsilsindki Murov zirvsi ialdan azad olunub", " ", "Despite Ceasefire, Fate Of The Nagorno-Karabakh May Turn On The Lachin Corridor", " " " ", " , ", " ", "Nagorno-Karabakh conflict unacceptable: EU", " ", " ", "Nagorno-Karabakh: Russia deploys peacekeeping troops to region", " ", "Facing Military Debacle, Armenia Accepts a Deal in Nagorno-Karabakh War", "Azerbaijan's Fuzuli a ghost town after Karabakh battles", "Armenians flee homes as Azerbaijan takeover looms", "Nagorno-Karabakh: Ethnic Armenians set fire to their homes rather than hand them to Azerbaijan", "Azerbaijan Extends Deadline For Armenia To Withdraw From Key District Under Karabakh Truce", "Armenians residents in Kalbajar burn their homes before Azerbaijan handover", "Armenians set fire to homes before handing village over to Azerbaijan", "Live updates: Some Armenian residents of Kalbajar burn homes", "Azerbaijan Extends Armenian Pullout Deadline From Disputed Area", " . Crisis Group developed this interactive map to track the geography of casualties along the front lines and deeper inside the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict zone. Three elements must be fulfilled for effective control to exist. Under the ceasefire agreement signed on 9 November 2020 by President of the Republic of Azerbaijan, Prime Minister of the Republic of Armenia and President of the Russian Federation, Azerbaijan regains control of all seven surrounding districts, i.e. 2020)", "The ArmeniaAzerbaijan conflict explained", "As fighting rages, what is Azerbaijan's goal? ACLED, Dataset Middle East 2016-2019, Data through 2nd of February 2019. The war cost lives of 2.425 Armenian servicemen and 2.783 Azerbaijani soldiers. Specifically, Armenia returned the Kalbajar District on 25 November 2020 (the original deadline of 15 November was extended by 10 days), the Aghdam District on 20 November 2020 and the Lachin District on 1 December 2020.

The current front line crosses civilian settlements and nearby areas.

From then till the 2020 war, Armenians were in control of most of the territory of the former Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast, with Azerbaijan controlling parts of the eastern Martuni and eastern Mardakert. The spring of 2016s fighting killed hundreds of people. Analysts cross-checked these reports against open source media reports. 17, "Official website of the President of the Nagorno Karabagh Republic", Law on Abolishment of Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast, Armenian POWs during the Second Nagorno-Karabakh War, Azerbaijani Community of Nagorno-Karabakh, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Armenian-occupied_territories_surrounding_Nagorno-Karabakh&oldid=1089905393, Articles with Russian-language sources (ru), Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia pages move-protected due to dispute, Articles containing Armenian-language text, Articles lacking reliable references from October 2021, All articles that may contain original research, Articles that may contain original research from October 2021, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0, Total of 1989's population of territories under full Armenian occupation, 27 March 1993, Armenian forces launched an offensive in, 23 July 1993, after 40 days of fighting, officially known in Armenia as the. [67] The transfer was celebrated in Baku, where cars paraded through the city with Azerbaijani, Russian and Turkish flags. The escalation left Azerbaijan in control of slightly more territory in the former NKAOand the adjacent territories for the first time since 1994s ceasefire. In June 2019, Armenian National Security Council announced the intention to build a third highway between Armenia and Nagorno Karabakh the following year. International Mediators condemn ceasefire violations in Nagorno-Karabakh, RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty, 20 May 2017;T. de Waal, Revamping the Nagorny Karabakh Peace Process, Foreign Policy Research Institute, 26 June 2013. [36] The Azerbaijani forces soon entered Lachin District,[37][38] with its administrative center, Lachin, getting constantly shelled until the end of the conflict. See J. Kucera, Russia and Turkey Open Joint Military Center in Azerbaijan, Eurasianet, 2 February 2021.

][9], The United Nations Security Council adopted four resolutions during the First Nagorno-Karabakh War demanding that all occupying forces withdraw from the territories surrounding Nagorno-Karabakh. [64] Also, on 30 November, French-Iranian Azerbaijani photojournalist Reza Deghati reported that the Armenian forces, before handing over the region, had sacked and burned down an 18th-century mosque, which they used as a barn for cows, in Qiyasli, Agdam. Subsequently, these territories were included by the de facto authorities of the Artsakh Republic into its administrative-territorial structure. [76], On 26 November, Armenian media reported that a group of 250 Azerbaijani soldiers had arrived at the Sotk gold mine, one of the largest gold deposits in the South Caucasus,[77] located on the border of Kalbajar District and Gegharkunik Province in Armenia,[78][79] and demanded its handover, establishing a military post at the mine. According to BBC Russian Service correspondent, Yuri Vekdik, despite Aleksanyan's calls, the vast majority of Armenian settlers in Lachin, as well as the Lebanese-Armenians in Zabux, had fled the region. [10][11][12][13] In 2008, the United Nations General Assembly passed Resolution 62/243, demanding the withdrawal of all Armenian forces from all the occupied territories of Azerbaijan,[14] although the co-chairs of the OSCE Minsk Group, Russia, France and USA, voted against it. Second, the presence of the foreign forces prevents the effective local government in place at the time of invasion from exercising its powers. We have agreed to maintain the status quo. All those proposals or comments, which do not ensure the exercise of the right of the Artsakh people to self-determination, cannot be acceptable for Armenia.See Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Armenia, Nagorno-Karabakh Issue; A. Harutyunyan, All those proposals or comments, which do not ensure the exercise of the right of the Artsakh people to self-determination, cannot be acceptable for Armenia, Armenpress, 13 December 2019; N. Pashinyan, Armenia is guarantor of security in Karabakh, Al Jazeera, 20 October 2020. He later served as the Armenian Minister of Defense, the Prime Minister of Armenia, and later President of Armenia. A methodology and terminology section that includes datasets used to generate the timeline, graphs and interactive maps. For a discussion of the European Courts approach to this issue, see M. Milanovic, The Nagorno-Karabkh Cases, EJIL:Talk!, 23 June 2015. [28] Thousands of Azerbaijanis demonstrated for war against Armenia in response, with Turkey propagandising in support of Azerbaijan. However, it now takes part in monitoring the compliance with the ceasefire through a joint monitoring centre. Mine explosions have become the predominant cause of injuries to non-combatants, including civilians living in or visiting the conflict zone and staff of civilian agencies operating in the area. See, e.g., UNGA, UN Doc. Moreover, even though the European Court of Human Rights did not determine the exact number of Armenian troops deployed in Nagorno-Karabakh, it found it established that the Republic of Armenia, through its military presence and the provision of military equipment and expertise, has been significantly involved in the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict from an early date.ECtHR, Chiragov and Others v Armenia, Grand Chamber, Judgment, App no 13216/05, 16 June 2015, 180. Especially, more information will be needed regarding the functioning of the armed groups of Nagorno-Karabakh in these new factual realities. J. Losh and A. Roth, Nagorno-Karabakh Peace Deal Brokered by Moscow Prompts Anger in Armenia, The Guardian, 10 November 2020.

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