(specialization) Building houses, sewing clothes, creating pottery, and cooperating on building public projects such as ziggurats and irrigation canals. ", "width": "800" 16. Thus, only a limited number of individuals were hired as scribes to be trained in its use. Specialized Workers Scribes Educated Understood writing system and record transactions Priests carryout & maintain religious tradition "name": "4. Scribes would keep records of important information such as the names of rulers, the law, and important historical events on clay tablets. If a man bear false witness [lies] in a case.if that case be a case involving life, that man shall be put to death. 22. In the Anabasis, Mesopotamia was used to designate the land east of the Euphrates in north Syria. If a man destroy the eye of another man, they shall destroy his eye. They also believed that water was everywhere, the top, bottom and sides, and that the universe was born from this enormous sea. Today: 5 Characteristics of Civilization Putting the information together Our First Civilization. It is on a cylinder seal currently housed at the British Museum and acquired by Dr. Dominique Collon. The arid environment ranges from the northern areas of rain-fed agriculture to the south where irrigation of agriculture is essential if a surplus energy returned on energy invested (EROEI) is to be obtained. He supported Aristarchus of Samos' heliocentric theory where the Earth rotated around its own axis which in turn revolved around the Sun. Hammurabis Code Brought unity to Mesopotamia Punishments from fines to death Protected: Family, Property, Business Hammurabi vs. The empire was relatively short-lived, as the Babylonians conquered them within only a few generations. If a patient could not be cured physically, the Babylonian physicians often relied on exorcism to cleanse the patient from any curses. Hammurabis Code 4. Houses are mostly known from Old Babylonian remains at Nippur and Ur. Essential Question: What were the important characteristics of the civilizations in Mesopotamia? This measurement for distances eventually was converted to a time-mile used for measuring the travel of the Sun, therefore, representing time.[38]. In particular, the Babylonian text Dialogue of Pessimism contains similarities to the agonistic thought of the Sophists, the Heraclitean doctrine of dialectic, and the dialogs of Plato, as well as a precursor to the Socratic method. [81] A little later there are a number of figures of large-eyed priests and worshippers, mostly in alabaster and up to a foot high, who attended temple cult images of the deity, but very few of these have survived. Palaces were decorated with hundreds of kilograms of these very expensive metals. The Babylonians also had theorems on how to measure the area of several shapes and solids. "width": "800" [78][79], City-states of Mesopotamia created the first law codes, drawn from legal precedence and decisions made by kings. According to a recent hypothesis, the Archimedes' screw may have been used by Sennacherib, King of Assyria, for the water systems at the Hanging Gardens of Babylon and Nineveh in the 7th century BC, although mainstream scholarship holds it to be a Greek invention of later times. Mesopotamian astronomers worked out a 12-month calendar based on the cycles of the moon.

WH1.3A-E UNIT 2: RIVER VALLEY CIVILIZATIONS. If a son strike his father, they shall cut off his hand. 196. }, 14 The first civilizations saw a way of life almost entirely different from the prehistoric era. The division of the region between Roman (Byzantine from 395 AD) and Sassanid Empires lasted until the 7th century Muslim conquest of Persia of the Sasanian Empire and Muslim conquest of the Levant from Byzantines. The usefulness of irrigation depends upon the ability to mobilize sufficient labor for the construction and maintenance of canals, and this, from the earliest period, has assisted the development of urban settlements and centralized systems of political authority. }, 12 Striding lions from the Processional Street of Babylon. Brick is the dominant material, as the material was freely available locally, whereas building stone had to be brought a considerable distance to most cities. The climate of the region is semi-arid with a vast desert expanse in the north which gives way to a 15,000-square-kilometre (5,800sqmi) region of marshes, lagoons, mudflats, and reed banks in the south. Therein, writing emerged with a pictographic script in the Uruk IV period (c.4th millennium BC), and the documented record of actual historical events and the ancient history of lower Mesopotamia commenced in the mid-third millennium BC with cuneiform records of early dynastic kings. The roots of algebra can be traced to the ancient Babylonia[39] who developed an advanced arithmetical system with which they were able to do calculations in an algorithmic fashion. "@type": "ImageObject", Early Civilizations: Mesopotamia & Egypt Unit 1, SSWH 1 a and b. Imagine how much time was saved by the development of such technology! [49], Along with contemporary Egyptian medicine, the Babylonians introduced the concepts of diagnosis, prognosis, physical examination, enemas,[50] and prescriptions. King Sargon, for example, conquered all the cities of Sumer, some cities in Mari, and then went to war with cities in modern-day Syria. As for schooling, only royal offspring and sons of the rich and professionals, such as scribes, physicians, temple administrators, went to school. "name": "Five Characteristics Of Civilization 1.Advanced Cities 2.Specialized Workers 3.Complex Institutions 4.Record Keeping & Writing 5.Advanced Technology 2 Important Rulers 1.Sargon of Akkad \u2013 Unified Mesopotamia in 2360 BCE 2.Hammurabi \u2013 Babylonian emperor, code of laws", The standardized form of each cuneiform sign appears to have been developed from pictograms. "width": "800" The Ancient Mesopotamian religion was the first recorded. (1985). [64] Girls had to stay home with their mothers to learn housekeeping and cooking, and to look after the younger children. The unpredictable Mesopotamian weather was often hard on farmers; crops were often ruined so backup sources of food such as cows and lambs were also kept. There had to be ways to keep order in cities. "contentUrl": "https://images.slideplayer.com/25/7730406/slides/slide_20.jpg", The Akkadian Empire was the first successful empire to last beyond a generation and see the peaceful succession of kings. "@context": "http://schema.org", "contentUrl": "https://images.slideplayer.com/25/7730406/slides/slide_17.jpg", Vasco da Gama's pioneering (1497-1499) of the sea route between India and Europe and the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 impacted on this nexus.[74][75]. [41] One of the most famous tablets is the Plimpton 322 tablet, created around 19001600BC, which gives a table of Pythagorean triples and represents some of the most advanced mathematics prior to Greek mathematics.[42]. Today, Mesopotamia occupies modern Iraq. To make this website work, we log user data and share it with processors. This irrigation is aided by a high water table and by melting snows from the high peaks of the northern Zagros Mountains and from the Armenian Highlands, the source of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers that give the region its name. From Nimrud. Its name is derived from the Arabic word al-d 'the wood', which is probably the name of the tree from which the oud was made. After 2500 BC, metalworkers in Sumeria produced thousands of bronze spearheads. "@context": "http://schema.org", The most renowned of these was that of Hammurabi, as mentioned above, who was posthumously famous for his set of laws, the Code of Hammurabi (created c. 1780 BC), which is one of the earliest sets of laws found and one of the best preserved examples of this type of document from ancient Mesopotamia. ", The Babylonian development of methods for predicting the motions of the planets is considered to be a major episode in the history of astronomy. "@context": "http://schema.org", [6], In modern academic usage, the term Mesopotamia often also has a chronological connotation. Thus songs were passed on through many generations as an oral tradition until writing was more universal. Overland routes in Mesopotamia usually follow the Euphrates because the banks of the Tigris are frequently steep and difficult. "contentUrl": "https://images.slideplayer.com/25/7730406/slides/slide_12.jpg", "contentUrl": "https://images.slideplayer.com/25/7730406/slides/slide_15.jpg",

Later the Arameans dominated major parts of Mesopotamia (c.900 BC 270 AD). Equally, centripetal tendencies amongst city-states have meant that central authority over the whole region, when imposed, has tended to be ephemeral, and localism has fragmented power into tribal or smaller regional units. Although land nearer to the rivers was fertile and good for crops, portions of land farther from the water were dry and largely uninhabitable. [94] The ziggurat is the most distinctive form, and cities often had large gateways, of which the Ishtar Gate from Neo-Babylonian Babylon, decorated with beasts in polychrome brick, is the most famous, now largely in the Pergamon Museum in Berlin. "contentUrl": "https://images.slideplayer.com/25/7730406/slides/slide_5.jpg", Women as well as men learned to read and write,[37] and for the Semitic Babylonians, this involved knowledge of the extinct Sumerian language, and a complicated and extensive syllabary. They believed that Enlil was the most powerful god. Modified over 6 years ago, 1 Complex Institutions Ziggurat = city hall & temple Believed gods controlled nature Ex. "description": "Hammurabi vs. Mesopotamian trade with the Indus Valley civilisation flourished as early as the third millennium BC. { For the Neo-Babylonian kings, war was a means to obtain tribute, plunder, sought after materials such as various metals and quality wood) and prisoners of war which could be put to work as slaves in the temples which they built. "Winged genie", Nimrud c. 870 BC, with inscription running across his midriff. The earliest form of logic was developed by the Babylonians, notably in the rigorous nonergodic nature of their social systems. "description": "Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor\u2019s wife. [68], The geography of southern Mesopotamia is such that agriculture is possible only with irrigation and with good drainage, a fact which had a profound effect on the evolution of early Mesopotamian civilization. A considerable amount of Babylonian literature was translated from Sumerian originals, and the language of religion and law long continued to be the old agglutinative language of Sumer. { In addition, Mesopotamian religion was polytheistic. They also played a board game similar to senet and backgammon, now known as the "Royal Game of Ur". Scheffler, Thomas; 2003.

"@context": "http://schema.org", [89], Bronze head of an Akkadian ruler, discovered in Nineveh in 1931, presumably depicting either Sargon of Akkad or Sargon's grandson Naram-Sin.[90]. Bell Ringer For 11/14/2011 What are the 5 characteristics of civilization? Record Keeping & Writing Writing made its first appearance in Mesopotamia Cuneiform means wedge-shaped Was written on clay tablets using a reed The impressions were wedge-shaped { At times one city would try to conquer and unify the region, but such efforts were resisted and failed for centuries. It fell to Alexander the Great in 332 BC, and after his death, it became part of the Greek Seleucid Empire.

9.Karl Marx.

Hrouda, Barthel and Rene Pfeilschifter; 2005. What are differences? "contentUrl": "https://images.slideplayer.com/25/7730406/slides/slide_14.jpg", Artisans played an important role in early civilization because their wide range of crafts helped cities to become centers of trade. "name": "1. Mesopotamian Civilization: Part 1 Begun 8/18/2014 Need more help? [44][45][46] Seleucus is known from the writings of Plutarch. Warm-Up Question: Why was the Neolithic Revolution. In exchange for various goods, city dwellers produced a wide variety of goods they could trade. It has been known as one of the world's earliest civilizations.[13]. 282 Laws Copies engraved on stone Uniform code of laws", The Ishtar gate was constructed in about 575 BCE by order of King Nebuchadnezzar II. Scholarly literature usually concentrates on temples, palaces, city walls and gates, and other monumental buildings, but occasionally one finds works on residential architecture as well. 3.

"@type": "ImageObject", 2 (Apr. Ex. [59], Irrigated agriculture spread southwards from the Zagros foothills with the Samara and Hadji Muhammed culture, from about 5,000 BC. "@type": "ImageObject", "name": "Ten Commandments 7.Thou shalt not commit adultery 8.Thou shalt not steal 9.Do not wear bear false witness against your neighbor 10. "contentUrl": "https://images.slideplayer.com/25/7730406/slides/slide_13.jpg", Specialized Workers Artisans \u2013Jewelry, metal-work, pottery, clothing, weapons. "@context": "http://schema.org",

"width": "800" The Assyrians had displaced populations throughout their vast empire, however, this particular practice under the Babylonian kings would appear to have been more limited, only being used to establish new populations in Babylonia itself. Each of these were named after their main cities, like Nineveh, Samaria, Damascus, and Arpad. They were also one of the first Bronze Age societies in the world. The whole story is a composite product, although it is probable that some of the stories are artificially attached to the central figure. "@context": "http://schema.org", The prehistory of the Ancient Near East begins in the Lower Paleolithic period. They all had their own governor who had to make sure everyone paid their taxes. At times a neutral city may act as an arbitrator for the two rival cities. "@type": "ImageObject", Around 3500 BC, Sumerian artisans used the potters wheel for the first time. An old Sumerian proverb averred that "he who would excel in the school of the scribes must rise with the dawn." "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", elements mesopotamia artifact civilization analysis "@context": "http://schema.org", Roux, Georges, (1993) "Ancient Iraq" (Penguin). Songs were sung to children who passed them on to their children. Fertile Crescent Complex Institutions Ways of organizing people Religion: Polytheistic believe in many gods Only gods were immortal After death people enter a realm of shadows Feel no pleasure or pain Theocracy Religious leaders run the government "name": "Mesopotamia 5 Characteristics Of Civilization", Bell Ringer For 11/14/2011 What are the 5 characteristics of civilization? These arguments were recorded in tablets several hundreds of years before any major warthe first recording of a war occurred around 3200 BC but was not common until about 2500 BC.

", They compared the genetic signatures to those of modern populations and found similarities with the DNA of people living in today's Turkey and Iraq.[30]. }, 4 When Assyria grew into an empire, it was divided into smaller parts, called provinces. City populations were soaring, which meant that people needed a system of ruling, or government. "contentUrl": "https://images.slideplayer.com/25/7730406/slides/slide_16.jpg", { The term rm Nahrn (Classical Syriac: )[15] (Hebrew: , Aram Naharayim)[16] was used multiple times in the Old Testament of the Bible to describe "Aram between the (two) rivers". 2022 SlidePlayer.com Inc. All rights reserved. }, 11 }, 23 { The Protoliterate period, dominated by Uruk, saw the production of sophisticated works like the Warka Vase and cylinder seals. [77] From this point forwards, warfare was incorporated into the Mesopotamian political system. "@context": "http://schema.org", Each division contains the story of a single adventure in the career of Gilgamesh. { "width": "800" 190 BC). 17 graves have been found with very precious objects in them. The oldest pictorial record of the Oud dates back to the Uruk period in Southern Mesopotamia over 5000 years ago. Thou shalt not covet thy neighbors wife "@type": "ImageObject", The birthplaces of the first civilization and the center of trade for a larger area; A large group of people living together; Babylon, Ur, Sumer. "width": "800"

{ Some children would help with crushing grain or cleaning birds. The earliest texts (7 archaic tablets) come from the , a temple dedicated to the goddess Inanna at Uruk, from a building labeled as Temple C by its excavators. Though royal inscriptions from the Neo-Babylonian period don't speak of acts of destruction and deportation in the same boastful way royal inscriptions from the Neo-Assyrian period do, this however, does not prove that the practice ceased or that the Babylonians were less brutal than the Assyrians, since there is evidence that the city Ashkelon was destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar II in 604 BC. It includes Kuwait, Iraq, and Syria. The only Greek-Babylonian astronomer known to have supported a heliocentric model of planetary motion was Seleucus of Seleucia (b. They could own property and, if they had good reason, get a divorce. ", Along with Sumerian, Semitic languages were also spoken in early Mesopotamia. Warm-Up Question: Why was the Neolithic Revolution such. { In this way, it was easier to keep control of a large empire. "@type": "ImageObject", Geography of the Fertile Crescent Desert climate dominates the landscape Southwest Asia. Although Babylon was quite a small state in Sumer, it grew tremendously throughout the time of Hammurabi's rule. Eventually Sumer was unified by Eannatum, but the unification was tenuous and failed to last as the Akkadians conquered Sumer in 2331 BC only a generation later.

For example, during the earliest Sumerian period, the "en", or high priest of male gods was originally a woman, that of female goddesses, a man. Cuneiform was recorded by inscribing information onto clay tablets. Again, due to trading and farming, people had lots more time to do other things besides look for food! In S.L. As a result, the political history of Sumer is one of almost constant warfare. "description": "Specialized Workers Traders\/Merchants \u2013Goods from distant regions; leads to new cities \u2013Cultural diffusion \u2013 spread of ideas from culture to culture \u2013Participated in bartering (trading goods & services for other goods & services). [22] The neighbouring steppes to the west of the Euphrates and the western part of the Zagros Mountains are also often included under the wider term Mesopotamia. 129139, (), Srpskohrvatski / , Military history of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, "history of Mesopotamia | Definition, Civilization, Summary, Agriculture, & Facts | Britannica", "How Mesopotamia Became Iraq (and Why It Matters)", "Ancient Mesopotamia and Modern Iraq in the British Press, 19802003", "Sea Level Changes in the Mesopotamian Plain and Limits of the Arabian Gulf: A Critical Review", "In ancient Mesopotamia, sex among the gods shook heaven and earth", "The Post-glacial Flooding of the Persian Gulf, animation and images", "Iraq, past, present and future: a thoroughly-modern mandate? The king, surrounded by his royal attendants and a high-ranking official, receives a tribute from Sua, king of Gilzanu (north-west Iran), who bows and prostrates before the king. The area is generally lacking in building stone, precious metals, and timber, and so historically has relied upon long-distance trade of agricultural products to secure these items from outlying areas. }, 6 "@context": "http://schema.org", "contentUrl": "https://images.slideplayer.com/25/7730406/slides/slide_22.jpg", "description": "Specialized Workers Scribes \u2013Educated \u2013Understood writing system and record transactions Priests \u2013 carryout & maintain religious tradition. [66], Sumerian temples functioned as banks and developed the first large-scale system of loans and credit, but the Babylonians developed the earliest system of commercial banking. It is used throughout the Greek Septuagint (c.250 BC) to translate the Hebrew and Aramaic equivalent Naharaim. The Neo-Babylonian kings used deportation as a means of control, like their predecessors, the Assyrians. This continued to Assyrian times, when Limmu lists were created as a year by year association of events with planetary positions, which, when they have survived to the present day, allow accurate associations of relative with absolute dating for establishing the history of Mesopotamia. "name": "2. With irrigation, the food supply in Mesopotamia was comparable to that of the Canadian prairies.[69]. As city-states began to grow, their spheres of influence overlapped, creating arguments between other city-states, especially over land and canals. 2.Thou shall have no false gods 3.Thou shall not use the lords name in vain 4.Remember the Sabbath & keep it holy 5.Honor your father & mother 6.Thou shalt not kill the escape/mutiny of the slaves). "description": "If a man destroy the eye of another man, they shall destroy his eye. Thus, each Sumerian city became a city-state, independent of the others and protective of its independence. "width": "800" In Kessler, Herbert L.; Simpson, Marianna Shreve. Advanced Technology 3000 BCE The Plow Could raise more crops The Sailboat & The Wheel Able to move goods quickly The 360 Degree circle & math system based on 60 Bronze Working Calender The coming together of large numbers of people really changed the way life was lived-from rules to religion! The early logographic system of cuneiform script took many years to master. [85] Stone stelae, votive offerings, or ones probably commemorating victories and showing feasts, are also found from temples, which unlike more official ones lack inscriptions that would explain them;[86] the fragmentary Stele of the Vultures is an early example of the inscribed type,[87] and the Assyrian Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III a large and solid late one. Most boys were taught their father's trade or were apprenticed out to learn a trade. (The Arabic name, with the definite article, is the source of the word 'lute'. Share buttons are a little bit lower. There were too many risks involved to make slavery practical (i.e. In this time, record keeping extended far beyond pictures. Ten Commandments What are similarities? [51], The symptoms and diseases of a patient were treated through therapeutic means such as bandages, creams and pills. { "width": "800" Trading was currency! Unusually for that time in history, women in Mesopotamia had rights. Akkadian fell into disuse, but both it and Sumerian were still used in temples for some centuries. { "description": "Hammurabi\u2019s Code Brought unity to Mesopotamia Punishments from fines to death Protected: \u2013 Family, Property, Business", It was not until the widespread use of a syllabic script was adopted under Sargon's rule[34] that significant portions of the Mesopotamian population became literate. ", Mesopotamia.

The Babylonians are also known for the Babylonian mile, which was a measure of distance equal to about seven modern miles (11km). FIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF A CIVILIZATION: 1.Advanced Cities 2.Specialized Workers 3.Complex Institutions 4. civilizations civilization mesopotamia prehistory quizlet Ancient city dwellers relied on trade in order to continue their non-nomadic lifestyle. He was also responsible for enforcing the laws. { "@type": "ImageObject", Deceased children were put in big "jars" which were placed in the family chapel. Contemporary artwork depicting Babylon at the height of its stature. Babylonian thought was axiomatic and is comparable to the "ordinary logic" described by John Maynard Keynes. A number of primarily neo-Assyrian and Christian native Mesopotamian states existed between the 1st century BC and 3rd century AD, including Adiabene, Osroene, and Hatra. Hammurabis Code Intro To The Code Of Laws: When Marduk [a god] sent me to rule the people and to bring help to the country, I established law and justice in the language of the land 2. "contentUrl": "https://images.slideplayer.com/25/7730406/slides/slide_23.jpg", "@type": "ImageObject", Mesopotamia (Ancient Greek: Mesopotam; Arabic: Bild ar-Rfidayn or Bayn ul-Nahrayn; Classical Syriac: , rm-Nahrn or , B Nahrn)[1] is a historical region of Western Asia situated within the TigrisEuphrates river system, in the northern part of the Fertile Crescent.

sfn error: no target: CITEREFBeaulieu2005 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFStager1996 (, Fensham, F. Charles (19620, "Widow, Orphan, and the Poor in Ancient near Eastern Legal and Wisdom Literature" 11/17/10 BR: What are the 5 characteristics of civilization? "@type": "ImageObject", If a man practices robbery and is captured, that man shall be put to death If a man s wife be surprised (cheating) with another man, both shall be tied and thrown into the water, but the husband may pardon his wife and the king his slaves..", "contentUrl": "https://images.slideplayer.com/25/7730406/slides/slide_3.jpg",

[76] Most kings named themselves "king of the universe" or "great king". The Sumerian calendar was lunisolar, with three seven-day weeks of a lunar month. Mesopotamia Mesopotamia = Greek for Land between rivers Tigris & Euphrates Located in what is called Fertile Crescent Sumerians (Began about 4000 B.C.E.) }, 22

Examination of the laws show a progressive weakening of the rights of women, and increasing severity in the treatment of slaves.[80]. "@type": "ImageObject", 5. }, 2 "@context": "http://schema.org", "@context": "http://schema.org", Major cities, such as Ur and Uruk, took root on tributaries of the Euphrates, while others, notably Lagash, were built on branches of the Tigris. { Published byCurtis Norton me or come to office hours- Wed. AM or Thur. What was General Douglas MacArthurs island-hopping strategy? }, 8 "name": "Bell Ringer For 11\/14\/2011 What are the 5 characteristics of civilization", "name": "Ten Commandments Ten Commandments: 1.I am the Lord your God. The Oud (Arabic:) is a small, stringed musical instrument used by the Mesopotamians. "width": "800" 3. ", ", [93] Archaeological surface surveys also allowed for the study of urban form in early Mesopotamian cities. Communication among the isolated cities was difficult and, at times, dangerous.

"width": "800" (part of the Silk Road), as well as northsouth between the Eastern Europe and Baghdad (Volga trade route). "width": "800" Although the rivers sustained life, they also destroyed it by frequent floods that ravaged entire cities. "description": "Advanced Cities City-State \u2013 A city surrounded by farm land \u2013 Economic, Political, & Religious Center Rulers of city-states had absolute power & treated like gods Every city had a ziggurat (temple at the center).
Site is undergoing maintenance

The Light Orchestra

Maintenance mode is on

Site will be available soon. Thank you for your patience!

Lost Password