[126] Originally designed as two separate structures, it was redesigned in 1899 as a single structure with kitchen-restaurant and laundry-bathhouse components,[251] and was subsequently completed in 1901. [233][234][235], The current complex was designed by Edward Lippincott Tilton and William A. Boring, who performed the commission under the direction of the Supervising Architect for the U.S. Treasury, James Knox Taylor. The current south side was composed of island 2, created in 1899, and island 3, created in 1906. [250], The remnants of Fort Gibson still exist outside the main building. [307][325] Those who were admitted often met with relatives and friends at the Kissing Post, a wooden column outside the registry room. [119][236] Their plan, submitted in 1898, called for structures to be located on both the northern and southern portions of Ellis Island. [242][248] The room was used for primary inspections. [155][156] The allocations were not received until the late 1920s. [141] In 1911, Williams alleged that Congress had allocated too little for improvements to Ellis Island,[142] even though the improvement budget that year was $868,000. [342] As Chicago surgeon Eugene S. Talbot wrote in 1898, "crime is hereditary, a tendency which is, in most cases, associated with bodily defects. [227][365][368], In 2008, by act of Congress and despite opposition from the NPS, the museum's library was officially renamed the Bob Hope Memorial Library in honor of one of the station's most famous immigrants, comedian Bob Hope. [20][238] It is made of a steel frame and terracotta blocks, with a limestone base and a facade of brick in Flemish bond. [270][271][272], The recreation hall is a two-story building with a limestone base, a facade of brick in Flemish bond, a gable roof, and terracotta ornamentation.

[241][240] On all four sides of the room, above the level of the third floor, is a clerestory of semicircular windows. [255], The building is mostly rectangular except for its northern annex and contains an interior courtyard, skylighted at the second floor. In the line inspection, the immigrants were split into several single-file lines, and inspectors first checked for any visible physical disabilities. [68][69] Ellis died in 1794,[67][69][70] and as per his will, the ownership of Ellis Island passed to his daughter Catherine Westervelt's unborn son, who was also named Samuel. [324] However, immigrants were exempt from deportation if they had close family ties to a U.S. permanent resident or citizen, or if they were seamen. [102][112][113] The contest rules specified that a "main building with annexes" and a "hospital building", both made of fireproof materials, should be part of each nomination. [284] It included reception rooms, offices, and a staff kitchen on the first floor; nurses' quarters and operating rooms on the second floor; and additional staff quarters on the third floor. [90] Among members of the United States Congress, there were disputes about whether to build the station on Ellis, Governors, or Liberty Islands. [219] Through its fundraising arm, the Statue of LibertyEllis Island Foundation, Inc., the group eventually raised more than $350 million in donations for the renovations of both the Statue of Liberty and Ellis Island. [20][238] Like the kitchen and laundry, it was completed in 1901. [e][92] Since Castle Clinton's lease was about to expire, Congress approved a bill to build an immigration station on Ellis Island. [19][158][159] Final inspections were now instead conducted on board ships in New York Harbor. [53] The native Mohegan name for the island was "Kioshk", meaning "Gull Island",[54][55][56] in reference to Ellis Island's former large population of seagulls. [152][153] However, despite a request for $5.6 million in appropriations in 1921,[154] aid was slow to materialize, and initial improvement work was restricted to smaller projects such as the infilling of the basin between islands 2 and 3. Ellis Island is in Upper New York Bay, east of Liberty State Park and north of Liberty Island. [223][225], The main building opened as a museum on September 10, 1990. [363] The museum contains several exhibits across three floors of the main building, with a first-floor expansion into the kitchen-laundry building. Additionally, a ferry slip with breakwater was built to the south of Ellis Island. The first floor contained recreational facilities, while the second floor was used mostly for offices. [260] After the immigration station closed, the powerhouse deteriorated[214] and was left unrepaired until the 1980s renovation. The administration building is smaller but also 3.5 stories. [303] The peak year for immigration at Ellis Island was 1907, with 1,004,756 immigrants processed,[66] and the all-time daily high occurred on April 17 of that year, when 11,747 immigrants arrived. This consisted of interrogations conducted by U.S. All structures were designed by James Knox Taylor in the Italian Renaissance style and are distinguished by red-tiled hip roofs, roughcast walls of stucco, and ornamentation of brick and limestone. [88][108][109] Within three days of the fire, the federal government made plans to build a new, fireproof immigration station. [18], The current island is shaped like a "C", with two landmasses of equal size on the northeastern and southwestern sides, separated by what was formerly a ferry pier. On April 21, 1794, the city deeded that land to the state for public defense purposes. [298], Initial immigration policy provided for the admission of most immigrants to the United States, other than those with mental or physical disabilities, or a moral, racial, religious, or economic reason for exclusion. [245] The first floor's east wing also contained a railroad waiting room and medical offices, though much of the wing was later converted to record rooms. [125][126] A one-and-a-half-story ice plant on the northern elevation was built between 1903 and 1908, and was converted into a ticket office in 1935. [127][132], Immigration commissioner William Williams made substantial changes to Ellis Island's operations, and during his tenure from 1902 to 1905 and 19091913, Ellis Island processed its peak number of immigrants. [128] The facilities proved barely able to handle the flood of immigrants that arrived, and as early as 1903, immigrants had to remain in their transatlantic boats for several days due to inspection backlogs. [188][189] Other attempts at redeveloping the site, including a college,[190] a retirement home,[182] an alcoholics' rehabilitation center,[191] and a world trade center[192] were all unsuccessful. [261], The southern side of Ellis Island, located across the ferry basin from the northern side, is composed of island 2 (created in 1899) and island 3 (created in 1906). The roof's northwest corner contains a one-story extension. [72][73]A small part of Ellis Island from "the soil from high to low waters mark around Ellis's Island" was owned by the city. From 1892 to 1924, about 14.28 million people passed through the Port of New York. [240] The south elevation of the first floor contains the current immigration museum's main entrance, approached by a slightly sloped passageway covered by a glass canopy. [171][172][173] As during World War I, the facilities were used to detain enemy soldiers in addition to immigrants, and the hospital was used for treating injured American soldiers. [102][94], Following the fire, passenger arrivals were again processed at the Barge Office, which was soon unable to handle the large volume of immigrants. [291][293] The structure was completely restored in 2007. [95] During construction, most of the old Battery Gibson buildings were demolished, and Ellis Island's land size was almost doubled to 6 acres (2.4ha). [166][164], With the start of World War II in 1939, Ellis Island was again utilized by the military, this time being used as a United States Coast Guard base. There are cornices below the second and third stories. The recreation shelter, a one-story brick pavilion, is located directly to the east. [374] By 2019, the wall was mostly full and only five panels remained to be inscribed. [210] Initially, only parts of three buildings were open to visitors. [66], The Internal Security Act of 1950 barred members of communist or fascist organizations from immigrating to the United States. [223] The NPS held a competition for proposals to redevelop the south side in 1981 and ultimately selected a plan for a conference center and a 250-to-300-room Sheraton hotel on the site of the hospital. [335][336] Following the Immigration Act of 1924, primary inspection was moved to New York Harbor, and Ellis Island only hosted immigrants that were to be detained or deported. Those with serious contagious diseases (such as cholera and typhus) were quarantined at Hoffman Island or Swinburne Island, two artificial islands off the shore of Staten Island to the south. It has a facade of brick in English and stretcher bond. [209], In the 1970s, the NPS started restoring the island by repairing seawalls, eliminating weeds, and building a new ferry dock. Narratives of Transformation at Ellis Island and the Lower East Side Tenement Museum", "Ellis Island, Inc.: The Making of an American Site of Memory", "National Register of Historic Inventory Nomination Form For Federal Properties: Ellis IslandStatue of Liberty National Monument", "MEDICAL INSPECTION OF IMMIGRANTS AT ELLIS ISLAND, 18911924", Ellis Island: Blocks 9019 thru 9023, Block Group 9, Census Tract 47, Hudson County, NJ; and Block 1000, Block Group 1, Census Tract 1, The Ellis Island Experience Articles, Documents and Images Gjenvick-Gjnvik Archives, Newspaper articles and clippings about Ellis Island at Newspapers.com, History and Photos of Ellis Island Baggage & Dormitory Building, Immigration Reform and Control Act (1986), Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA) (1996), Nicaraguan Adjustment and Central American Relief Act (NACARA) (1997), American Competitiveness and Workforce Improvement Act (ACWIA) (1998), American Competitiveness in the 21st Century Act (AC21) (2000), Legal Immigration Family Equity Act (LIFE Act) (2000), Trump administration family separation policy, U.S. [185] In 1959, real estate developer Sol Atlas unsuccessfully bid for the island, with plans to turn it into a $55 million resort with a hotel, marina, music shell, tennis courts, swimming pools, and skating rinks. [266] It had linen, laundry, and disinfecting rooms; a boiler room; a morgue with autopsy room; and quarters for the laundry staff on the second floor. [19][66] One of the last detainees was the Indonesian Aceh separatist Hasan di Tiro who, while a student in New York in 1953, declared himself the "foreign minister" of the rebellious Darul Islam movement and was subsequently stripped of his Indonesian citizenship and held as an "illegal alien". [322] Following each examination, inspectors used chalk to draw symbols on immigrants who were suspected to be sick. [369] On May 20, 2015, the Ellis Island Immigration Museum was officially renamed the Ellis Island National Museum of Immigration, coinciding with the opening of the new Peopling of America galleries in the first floor of the kitchen-laundry building.
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